The sustainable development perspectives for food crisis and biofuels

Biofuels, fuels of renewable energy experience, a growing interest worldwide in recent decades, mainly as a substitute for fossil fuels. There are two types of biofuel demand in the global market for ethanol and biodiesel. Ethanol, Dell Studio 1537 battery which comes from starch or other forms of sugar is produced from corn, potatoes, sugar cane, or potato, millet, cassava and more recently. Meanwhile, biodiesel is produced mainly in Germany and France, comes from the transesterification of oils extracted from ethanol or methanol-induced rapeseed, sunflower, soybean or palm oil (IEA, 2007).

Thus, the growth of ethanol and biodiesel, in recent years rapidly (Ajanovic, 2010;. Sordaa et al, 2010) has. Several factors may explain the increased demand and consumption, global goals for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and the desire for independence to import fuel from politically unstable regions (to reduce Ajanovic 2010, he and Torre, 2007; and Timilsina Shrestha, 2010). In recent years many countries have different political objectives and fossil fuels with biofuels Dell Studio 1735 battery in Europe has to replace in case of 5.75% of the energy used for transportation come from biofuel by 2010, while the percentage was 10% in the U.S. 2020 (2010 Ajanovic; Sordaa et al, 2010) ..

Biofuels are being developed lately, but now in competition with the production of food consumption (Brown, 2008). The market for biofuels has also been associated, at least in part to rising Dell Vostro A840 battery prices of edible products, the experience led him to the most important global food crisis in 2008. The origin of this crisis is complex and appears to be related to several factors (Nellemann, 2009).

Between them, they need to 1) the green revolution of the postwar period, which influenced the forms of agricultural production, 2) the global population explosion, 3) the slowdown in economic growth and macroeconomic imbalances, 4) increase in prices oil and fertilizer, 5) decrease in inventories and increasing demand in developed countries that have a higher household income, 6) the decline in research and development in agriculture, 7) financial speculation eight experiments) the supply disruptions caused by weather conditions (Ajanovic, 2010, 2008 Payment; Werly, 2009). The SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery increase in prices, the result of these factors has led to nearly 130 million people below the poverty line according to the World Bank (Headey, 2010). Note that after several journalists and economists, Peter Brabeck (President of Nestle), Josette Sheeran (World Food Programme Manager) and Jacques Diouf (Director of Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations) to call the food crisis is not approved, come (Bias, 2009; Werly 2009, Cha, 2008; Clavreul 2008, Runge and Senauer, 2007). In addition, the year 2011 promises to be particularly difficult due to a significant increase in food prices.

According to the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI), biofuels also have their share of responsibility. In fact, they did the 30% SONY VGP-BPS12 battery increase in grain prices during the period 2000-2007 and an increase of 40% of the total price of corn (Tirado et al., 2010). Rising food prices are associated with an increased calorie deficit, and therefore can malnutrition among low-income population to increase. The use of edible products to produce biofuels as a "crime against humanity" was described by the Special Rapporteur on the Right to Food Unit of the Human Rights Council of the United Nations (Tirado et al., 2010) . Therefore, the diversion of food to the energy sector is ethically questionable, Dell Latitude D830 battery and the overall impact analysis is needed before resuming production.

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of the increasing demand for biofuels on global food crisis, providing a fundamental key to sustainable economic development, social development and environmental protection.

Biofuels: Economic Aspects

Since food is below the world market price is due to specific factors that influence the supply (production), demand (consumption) and food supplies that the administration and are able to modulate the impact excess of various annual crops (California, 2009).

Production and consumption of food and biofuels

According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) has provided increased global food production per capita in constant since 1960. This Dell XPS M1530 battery applies to all continents, except Africa, where per capita production has increased in North Africa, right, and the sub-Saharan Africa has decreased trends. He said in reference to biofuels, increasingly in recent years (Figure 3). Almost 79000000000 gallons of biofuels (ethanol and biodiesel combined) occurred in 2008. Note that ethanol, which largely surpassed the United States and Brazil, with a ratio of 01/06 (the ratio of 8.1 in 2005), the main European production of biodiesel (Martinot and Sawin 2009, IEA, 2007). To achieve this production, about 100 million tons of grain were used, the combination of 5% of world production of all cereals. Brown (2008) estimated that the U.S. has 20% of its annual production of ethanol from corn is turned on, while biofuels forces only 4% of transportation in the country. For some specific products for nearly 50% of them are used by the energy sector. This is the case of Brazil, including the Dell XPS M1730 battery uses half the harvest of sugar cane to produce ethanol.

As mentioned, not only food crops. Cereal production has three main markets: the direct use as food or immediately after the conversion simple and excise taxes used in the conversion of food, livestock feed, and, finally, to biofuels for energy.

Thus, the Dell XPS M1330 battery supply of and demand for food is influenced by several factors. Among these, requires the demographics, the growing demand for energy reduction in fossil fuels and the growing demand for meat in developing countries, summarized in the development of society. In addition to obtaining the above factors, supply and demand makes little foreign policy of many of the goals of sustainable development and the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which is characterized by the production and integration of biofuel in their attempt territories. For example, the objectives of biofuel production in Europe by 2015 a total of 130 million liters,Compaq Presario CQ60 battery and the United States for 2022 is approximately 140 billion liters. Recall that the production of bioethanol from corn in the United States less than 32 billion liters in 2007

Food, part of the global market, the SONY VGP-BPS13A/B battery price is influenced by several factors. First, oil prices affect food prices, especially since this area to harvest, production and transport to the consumer (Nellemann, 2009) is not necessary. Due to dependence on oil production and transportation of grain, there is a correlation between oil prices and food prices (FAO, 2008). This relationship is also evident, although the complexity of the relationship is not possible to draw definitive conclusions. A look at the evolution of oil prices and fluctuations in the price index for food could shed light on this relationship. The peak in 2008, according to the food crisis is more evident (Nellemann, 2009)!

Also, the price of fertilizers is also due to the price of oil and gas under the influence, as they require for their production. For example, the rising cost of fertilizers in the United States 8% between 2002 and 2007 (Ajanovic, 2010). Needless to say that the SONY VGP-BPS2 increase in fertilizer prices could also impact on food prices.

The price of food is also influenced by changes in the selection of agricultural production. Farming for energy seems to be more profitable than agriculture traditional food consumption. This in particular has led to the replacement of soy in Brazil for sugar cane and wheat to corn in the United States. The result of these changes in agriculture have higher prices and lower stocks of grain available for consumption (;. Torado et al, 2010 Ajanovic, 2010) were.

Finally, the expansion of crops for biofuel production in areas where the risk of large (with problems in the aquifer) are also affected by grain prices, creating greater scarcity (Torado et al., 2010).

Biofuels: Social

First, the production and growing demand for biofuels from edible materials, food shortages, malnutrition and hunger in the world.

On the one hand, it is generally accepted that among low-income families, as found mainly in developing countries, spending on food is an important part of family income. As demand for biofuels could lead to food prices and a smaller number of seeds for food, it is possible to imagine that this SONY VAIO VGN-AR830E battery development will affect low-income families . It is also suggested that the FAO index of grain prices is reversed, with total quantities of grain for food aid from international organizations is sent to the related problems of increasing hunger among the poor (FAO, 2008). Also note that almost 80% of the population lives in developing countries and this figure reached almost 85% in 2030 (FAO, 2005). Much of the population lives in sub-Saharan Africa and India, two major grain consumption (FAO, 2005). For example, sub-Saharan Africa, more than 30% of the population in 2003 (FAO, 2009) malnourished provides almost 12% of world population and should be used for almost 16% of which in 2030 accounts. Scenarios with an estimated malnutrition in children also show an Asus Eee PC 900 battery increase of the phenomenon in sub-Saharan Africa in 2020 (Smith and Haddad, 2000).

On the other hand, production and demand for biofuels from edible substances, malnutrition and hunger, increasing the use of large amounts of water for irrigation. In fact, agriculture is the human activity that requires the highest water consumption. Nearly 70% of water used on the planet for this purpose (Brown, 2008). The pressure on global water resources are perceived negatively by others, reducing the efficiency of agricultural production in some regions of the world, including India, China, Middle East, Mexico, United States of America. (Brown, 2008).

Although the percentage of water for the production of biofuels from marginal (estimated at 1.4%) used to irrigate food crops in general (de Fraiture and Bringezu Howarth and Berndes, 2009), some water problems of accessibility expected in comparison, especially in developing countries, where access is limited and the water is used mainly for cooking and meet the basic needs of hydration. If so, the demand for food in a matter of demographics, the application is added to biofuels Asus Eee PC battery to meet global goals to reduce emissions of greenhouse gases, therefore, greatly increase grain production through the expansion of cultivated area and increase the yield per hectare to meet global needs. This finding implies a likely increase in irrigation and can reduce the water available from the local population. Note that the effects of malnutrition have been closely associated with lack of access to water quality (Smith and Haddad, 2000) attached.

Finally, increased production and demand for first generation biofuels can also be some political crisis caused by the practice of agrocolonialisme (neo) the practice of buying or leasing of land by foreign countries for their water problems and decreased Asus A32-F3 battery production of cereals per person (Gilland, 2006). This is also the explosion of the food crisis of 2008 (Biney, 2009) and the number of surfaces involved is enormous. In the media, spoke of "land grabbing", which translates as "the land plundered." Hafiz (2009) cites a United Nations report, a series of 30 million hectares (agricultural area of ​​France) is called in the transaction or acquired by the countries with significant financial resources and must be fast growing.

Sun South Korea has acquired 700 000 hectares in Sudan, Saudi Arabia has 500 000 hectares in Tanzania and India has acquired nearly 350,000 acres in Africa. These three examples are a small minority of transactions, and is based on the agricultural land area cultivated in Belgium, Guinea Bissau (Gilland, 2006; FAOSTAT, 2009). Another transaction, which the  company has not confirmed the Asus Eee PC 1201 battery purchase by China of 2.8 million hectares in the Democratic Republic of Congo, this time for biodiesel production (Von Braun and Meinzen-Dick, 2009).

In fact, "plundered the country," the phenomenon that caused the political crisis in Madagascar in March 2009 and led to the cancellation of the transaction of 1.3 million hectares of Daewoo (South Korea) and government (Meinzen-Dick and von Braun, 2009).

Biofuels: environmental aspect

Soil and Water Quality

The production and demand for biofuels on water quality and soil. First, as mentioned above, the production of grain (and biofuels) requires large amounts of water. De Fraiture and Berndes (in Howarth and Bringezu, 2009) estimate that 800-3300 liters of water are needed to produce Asus Eee PC 701 battery one liter of bioethanol produced from sugar cane, and 1500-7400 liters are needed for the production of corn. These figures are highly dependent on the degree of irrigation necessary for agriculture. The plantations of sugar cane in Brazil, for example, receive more rainfall than that of India, a country must be offset by increased irrigation of their crops.

To counter problems of food and energy, has proposed to increase the surface area and / or increase performance. Increasing agricultural production is mainly due to higher yields, with the exception of the soybean area has been greatly expanded to (Nellemann, 2009). The SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery yield has risen steadily since the green revolution, but a blanket and a price that modern agriculture has to offer. Performance depends on several factors, including the types of fertilizers. Needless to say that the increase in performance with a lot of fertilizer and water has an impact on the quality of soil and water (Ajanovic, 2010).

Adding that the environmental risks, such as the depletion of local water resources and contamination of ecosystems with fertilizers, particularly on the part of foreign owners of expropriated land "does not have to suffer the consequences of their own territories (Hafez, 2009) by fear.

Wheatfield and biodiversity

The amount of raw materials for biofuels are important. For example, 2.5 pounds of grain are needed to make one liter of ethanol from raw corn 13.3 kg of sugar (de Fraiture and Bringezu Howarth and Berndes, 2009). The entire vehicle fuel with biofuels to replace 30 million Dell XPS M1330 battery barrels of ethanol and 23 million barrels of biodiesel per day. This leads to 300 million hectares of cane sugar and 590 million acres of corn. Also to satisfy the demand for biodiesel would require 225 million hectares of palm oil, 20 times higher than that of existing plantations (De La Torre Ugarte, and he, 2007; Ajanovic, 2010). Note that one of the known effects of this transformation of ecosystems, a greater loss of biodiversity.

Greenhouse gas emissions

It is assumed that emissions of greenhouse gases due to the use of biofuels in general much lower than the combustion of fossil fuels. However, it is generally accepted that the transformation of land and forests to agricultural crops, such as starch or sugar, cause a special issue of carbon dioxide Dell Latitude D630 battery and other greenhouse gases, mainly through the collection methods and soil and the controlled combustion with 'use of fertilizers such as nitrogen oxides, gases that emit-300 times more potent than carbon dioxide (Ajanovic 2010, Tirado and others., 2010).

Other generations of biofuels, a solution?

The vast majority of the studies cited so far to reduce the negative impact of the use of edible products to produce biofuels. However, there are other alternatives for the production of biofuels, such as the use of non-food resources. These technologies use cellulose and lignin from agricultural residues (straw, corn cobs) or wood to produce ethanol and animal fats and vegetable oils for diesel fuel (IEA, 2007). These alternatives Dell Precision M4400 battery are called second-generation biofuels and seems very interesting, especially because 1) the competitive impact of biofuel production reduced in relation to food, 2) emissions of greenhouse gases, the depletion of 3) encourage greater energy efficiency and 4), would be fewer chemicals to grow (Sordaa et al, 2010;. Ajanovic, 2010).

Techniques for the production of ethanol from woody material and other products are still in development. In contrast, the cultivation of jatropha is (ground unfit for consumption, but also for the synthesis of bio-fuels) is not very different from that of palm oil and, therefore, Dell Vostro 1510 battery not without technical difficulties. Jatropha requires only small amounts of water and is very resistant to drought and pests.

Therefore, the second-generation biofuels are promising. However, a study that compares the life cycle of corn and its suppression in the production of ethanol with production of energy from fossil fuels has noted that these alternatives have been exhausted or the floor. Even if the attack is the best environment (not organic, economic),Dell Inspiron Mini 12 battery will still need to replenish lost nutrients in the soil, when they recovered the attack, but rather as a natural fertilizer (Luo et al., 2009) uses.

Another route, this time without any impact on the soil surface is the use of algae to produce energy in various forms (gas, ethanol, methane and hydrogen). This production is a relatively new third-generation biofuels. After Pienkos and Darzins (2009), focuses most of the route of the promotion of research on extracting oil from algae to produce diesel. This process is still in a phase of mass production, but this sector is booming, as the yield per hectare of algae seems much older than the number of terrestrial biomass (more than 13 times that of soybeans). This process is also interesting because the algae easily in an aqueous environment, brackish or wastewater can be cultivated. However, some technological hurdles to overcome before any real benefit for the costs of collection and SONY VGP-BPS13 battery production remains very important.


And 'now clear that the market for biofuels has had a tangible impact on the food crisis in 2008 and adopted more ambitious targets of various countries in the coming years. Thus, the European targets for the use of biofuels in the area have been revised downwards in 2008.

Economically, the relationship between agricultural production for energy and rising food prices is relatively clear. Note that the SONY VGP-BPL13 battery increase in prices of agricultural products and oil for the year 2008 75 million undernourished people worldwide have been added. Ironically, the only U.S. bioethanol production in 2008 could be about 80 kg of maize each of undernourished in the world (; Dubuis, 2009 Brown, 2008) has provided. The decline in grain reserves, despite an increase in output per person launching some legal discussions of particular importance to the free food for speculation in the stock market.

On the social level could support the growing production of biofuels with increased socio-political tensions in some countries, including the phenomenon may be related to "land sacked." SONY VGP-BPL8 battery Should increase beyond an ethical question, not the convenience of the dedication of agricultural production for energy in the diet.

Finally, the environment, biofuel production has a significant impact on soil pollution, both in quality and quantity of water for personal use. The massive use of fertilizers and pesticides and enormous water requirements for Asus Tablet PC battery biofuel production are important considerations for this purpose.

The second-generation biofuels and the third seems that the future solutions through fuel efficiency and reduce the total cost of land and air pollution. However, it is important if not essential, to fully evaluate the SONY VGP-BPS22 battery impact of these new technologies before their massive exploitation.




Nuclear radiation: What risks to health ?


Strong radioactive radiation can have serious health consequences. While the escape of radioactive emissions from the plant in Fukushima, France 24 reports on the risks of radiation.

Radioactive cloud

In the event of a nuclear accident, as seen in Japan, radioactive particles in the atmosphere. Very thin air by tiny droplets carried out a radioactive cloud. As a cloud of steam or dust, HP Pavilion DV7 battery which moves outdoors, as the wind and rain. Finally, the wind scatters the particles in the atmosphere. But the rain enters the soil or scattered on the sea, the pollution of plants - including crop - water, flora and fauna, as well as the entire food chain.


Radiation produce radioactive particles, ie the HP Pavilion DV8000 battery energy is emitted in the form of waves in terms of damage to or destruction of the cells DNA. Contamination from radioactive particles in the human body is especially harmful for the time being, except in cases of severe exposure, is painless, odorless and invisible.

To distinguish the two types of pollution:

external irradiation of the skin and eyes on one side. Just take a shower and do not wear clothes during the exposure to radioactive particles in the body to get rid of use.

Internal radiation on the opposite side. In the latter case, the radioactive particles entering the body. Absorbed through skin, inhalation, ingestion - including the consumption of contaminated food or water - that bind to different organs and, if the cells are damaged or destroyed, HP Pavilion DV9000 battery may cause undesired operation.


The effects of radiation varies depending on the duration and intensity of exposure, and exposed the extent of radioactive particles. The dose of radiation absorbed by the human body is Sievert (Sv) were measured.

Low exposure: everyone, HP Pavilion G60 battery without exception, is exposed to radiation of low activity during its existence. Earth and the Sun produces the water we drink and eat all the foods that contain them. This is what scientists call natural ionizing radiation.

According to the Scientific Committee, the Scientific Committee of the United Nations, the effects of ionizing radiation millisiverts an average of 2.4 (1 = millisiverts Sivert 1000 - mSv) per year. A rate that varies on the surface of the earth. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), there is no evidence that these doses are a health risk.

Average load of a certain threshold, the body can not absorb. The Sony VGP-BPS9/B Battery cells of the human body can be damaged without being destroyed. The consequences of this exposure depends on the strength of the individual.

Radioactive iodine is determined in the thyroid gland - the gland at the base of the neck - and can lead to serious disturbances of the body, including cancer. Fetuses, children and young adults are particularly vulnerable to these risks.

, The spread of radioactive cesium particles, which can cause leukemia, cancer of the colon, lung, skin ...

These diseases can appear many years - even decades for cancer of the lung and skin - from exposure to radioactive particles. However, these conditions are not uniformly example: The body is sometimes able to repair DNA mutations caused by radiation damage.

The WHO estimates that people are exposed to doses of 100 mSv to suffer from an hour to an increased risk of cancer. About 80% of individuals exposed to doses of at least one day in cancer Sivert. Tuesday reached near the damaged reactor radiation from the plant in Fukushima millisiverts 400 per hour or 1,000 times the Dell Latitude E6410 battery dose approved in France.

Presents striking: in just a few minutes or hours after exposure to high radiation are several symptoms: vomiting, diarrhea, fever, hair and nails, burning, redness ...

If most of the body was exposed, bone marrow, which produces blood cells (white blood cells and platelets), suffer a serious injury, often causing life-threatening diseases. This is the syndrome of acute radiation sickness. Degeneration may occur with the destruction of the immune system and central nervous system cells in the intestinal wall, or a respiratory infection or severe cardiovascular disease. In women, lesions, the ovaries and cause infertility eggs. Men are prone to develop cancer of the prostate and Sony VGP-BPS10 Battery testicles.

In 1986, workers at the Chernobyl plant after the blast - who died in the following months - were exposed to extreme doses of six Sivert. Exposure to doses of 4 to 4.5 Sivert in half the cases are fatal.


There are few treatment options for the air pollution associated with ingestion of radioactive elements by man. Iodine tablets to prevent thyroid cancer. Can be included as soon as possible, or even before an exposure. Gland is saturated with iodine "healthy", so the radioactive iodine can not be included.

A molecule called "Prussian Blue" can be effective against a cesium contamination. Prevents small radioactive particles measured.

If the radioactive cloud, you should not go, turn heaters and air conditioners, doors and caulking windows to keep the particles in the environment.

In addition, using a mask for the mouth and nose to minimize inhalation of radioactive particles.

Do you know the presence of Nuclear forces in the world ?

Nuclear deterrence remains today and has long been a key element of our defense. The consensus is clear that the years of the Cold War, not accompanied by the prevention of deep differences of opinion. We recognize the fact that nuclear weapons provided by ideological reasons, because it was opposed by the terrible temper. Remains and will be tomorrow. But this is not the apocalyptic vision of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Asus EEE PC 1201HA Battery making it the first time in the history of the conflict as a handicap?

Without getting into philosophical debate, nor against the two fields, one can still think that Compaq Presario CQ70  battery was a driving force for stability during the Cold War, and will continue to play a similar role at a time when the spread of weapons of mass destruction destruction mass is potentially the seed of a threat of more and more evident in European countries in general and particularly in France.

Therefore, at this stage I want to paint the first picture of the situation in the world and the current French nuclear force in place, including the provision for our country, the main trends for the future than large weapons systems, use the challenges posed by the strategy of nuclear deterrence in all directions, Asus Eee PC 900 battery as defined in the White Paper and reiterated in the latest military budget law.

Current status of nuclear facilities

It is useful to place our nuclear forces in the community of other countries with these funds in order to better understand the situation that is likely to find in the next 20 to 30. Almost 15 years after the end of the Cold War, bipolar world dominated by the nuclear arms race has changed dramatically Asus Eee PC 1000 battery and the five official nuclear powers are now in one direction and is caused by several factors:

The first is the reduction of weapons contracts

The second is that the budgets, the U.S. budget for nuclear weapons from three split between 1990 and 1999. The Russian economic crisis.

The third episode of the former Soviet Union and its impact on the industrial base, particularly in the field of ballistic missiles.

Finally, the last appearance of a part of India and Pakistan with nuclear capability, according to studies in 1998. These two new nuclear powers to develop both nuclear warheads and delivery systems which can be classified as an intercontinental day. His teachings were developed with different levels of maturity, Asus Eee PC battery may be different, but with real commitment. The Pakistan seems to be more concerned about their neighbors. But India is, of course, a broader policy of deterrence, that is for China to implement. In addition, the ability of Israel is no longer in doubt and the efforts of Iran and North Korea in their efforts to access nuclear weapons are a problem

As for the two nuclear superpowers, as well as the United States and Russia, the development of NSF is quantitatively regulated by the arms reduction treaties. START-1 Treaty, signed in 1991,SONY VAIO VGN-FW battery driven by an increase in 10 years, the number of strategic nuclear warheads on both sides, from 10,000 to 6,000. START 2 treaty has been abandoned, but it was the Moscow Treaty, signed in May 2002 replaced. His goal, in 2012 the two stocks to a level TN 1700-2200 (maybe 2200 for the United States and Russia for 1700) to reduce.

However, qualitatively, the programs have been initiated to improve and modernize several years.

United States

On the side of the United States were the most important events that drove the change of strategic forces in succession, the Nuclear Posture Review, SONY VAIO VGN-FW378J/B battery called NPR in 2001 and the termination of the ABM missiles in June 2002. Above all, the forces of strategic offensive nuclear and non nuclear: NPR is a new concept of deterrence, the United States now developed

Second defense, missiles, embodied in the missile defense program, the first interceptor was put into operation by September of this year,

Finally, an industrial reagent.

Therefore, U.S. forces in the process of strategic change. The nuclear part is ready to continue its 14 nuclear-powered ballistic missile, the range 2-12000 km Trident build. This SONY VGP-BPS9A/B battery component is the heart of the American deterrent. In addition, an assistance program of the quality of life of Trident is already running and the production of 115 additional missiles are planned between 2008 and 2013. The submarines will remain in operation today until 2042.

The ground floor consists of 500 Minuteman 3, SONY VGP-BPS13A/B battery will also benefit from a modernization program of $ 6 million to extend its life until 2020. Meanwhile, begin to develop a new ballistic missile (Minuteman Elite) to implement by 2018.

Note that studies to improve the accuracy of ballistic missiles in place in order to carry non-nuclear warheads, making them capable of hitting a target at 30 'with an accuracy of one meter, however, with the use of nuclear fire.

The current B-52H bombers and B-2 has a limited number of nuclear bombs and cruise missiles. A program of study is to develop a new generation. Early work in 2013 is scheduled for commissioning in 2037

United Kingdom

Note that the British deterrent is currently carried out through its four SSBNs, which are equipped with Trident America. Only the nuclear charge is to examine the national design.


Russia has now more of the axes of the effort, despite financial difficulties. The ground floor has always been at the forefront as a deterrent, as the continent of this country and its restrictions on access to the sea to land 600 missiles are still in use. The modern SS-27 will be deployed in silos, from 6 to 10 years. The Asus Eee PC 901 battery development of mobile version of extremes. For its part, Russia seabed, has 14 nuclear submarines. In addition, three new-generation SSBN, the Borey, under construction in the shipyards of Severodvinsk. And 'since 2007 a new missile to be equipped with dust, the Bulava (over 8,000 km range), whose development is in progress. A sputum test end of September 2004 was mapped by fire subsea development takes place. Finally, a long-range bombers steps in the development and implementation is scheduled to begin in 2010.


NSF in China is also based on a triad. Several characteristic points: the low number first, and then the slow development since the first machines have been in 50 years with Soviet help, Asus Eee PC 701 battery and independently developed 60 years after the collapse of relations with the Soviet army. However, China is modernizing its armed forces dramatically.

Ground-ground missiles are liquid propulsion, the range 2800-13000 km and following solid propulsion craft, the DF-21, DF-31 and DF-31A, which replaces the use of prescription Missile Defense. The focus is on expanding the mobile and it is likely that the number of nuclear warheads is growing, but not violently. Also note that China has the Asus Eee PC 1201N battery technical capability of the missile Mirvis, although not yet implemented. The DF-31 is a revolutionary new motor vehicle of three solid phases that the range of 8,000 km. This is a head and commissioning started last year.

For a power of the ocean, China Xia SSBN SSBN decided only by a new generation will be equipped with JL-2 will be replaced by the DF-31 comes close and has similar properties, for example, 8,000 km range, 3-stage solid propellant and a 300 kt TN. There is talk of a distribution from April to June SSBNs. Finally, SONY VGP-BPS12 battery with regard to nuclear-capable bombers, bombers, now 120, H-6 and Q-5 will each win a nuclear bomb.


Israel's nuclear deterrence capability is not recognized officially, but it is believed that the number of nuclear weapons by the Jewish state could be based weapons 100-200. The application is guaranteed by Jericho ballistic missiles and bombers.


India conducted its nuclear tests in 1998 and has mastered all the missile technology (liquid propulsion, solid propulsion, materials, guidance, control, etc.). This country has two main programs. First, the tactical Prithvi ballistic missile program, liquid fuels and is used to provide in 1998 in two versions, the respective range of 150 and 250 km. This machine is equipped with engines derived from the surface-to-air SA-2 missiles equipped. Then SONY VAIO VGN-FW350DH battery began the solid propellant missile Agni and Agni a second (700 km range and 2500, respectively), their use in 2004. Another version is to ensure development within a target range of 3,500 km, a value considered essential for the long-term deterrence against China, which covers a vast area of ​​Beijing and the Chinese military-industrial complex. The first blow of development is expected before the end of 2004.


Pakistan has also completed its first nuclear test in 1998. Its ballistic missile program is organized in two ways. The first is that the class liquid rocket Ghauri, a missile the North Korean Nodong derivative. Pakistan has a range of 1,500 kilometers with a payload of 700 kg. Other SONY VGP-BPL8 battery changes may follow, each time with an increase in the range. The second stream is the Shaheen-class solid-rocket. And 'the result of the experience of Pakistan and kept sounding rockets in the links with China. The Shaheen 2, which first flew in March 2004 has a range of 2,500 km.

Iran and North Korea

Finally, other powers are distinguished by their willingness to access a deterrent. The most important are Iran and North Korea, but also for others. Iran, whose nuclear program is of increasing concern to the international community Shahab ballistic missile operating 1,500 km, SONY VGP-BPL13 battery which is derived from the North Korean Nodong. Improved versions could go well beyond the cover and in Europe. North Korea is also developing a nuclear program and has long been the opportunity to develop ballistic missiles and Nodong Taepodong that flew over Japan in 1998 are proof. Other long-range missiles are under development.

The five major nuclear countries, therefore, a policy of nuclear deterrence, despite the collapse of the Soviet bloc and preserved, despite all the pressure to be opponents of any kind. Two of them, the United States and Russia clearly above the others in terms of number of launchers and warheads. Russia, despite facing enormous economic problems and related diseases, in particular, to get their conventional armed forces,SONY VGP-BPS8 battery still a substantial effort to the strategic nuclear weapons systems in working condition or modernization. Three countries have a triad, the United States, Russia and China, while Britain has decided that its nuclear deterrent for the '(Mer Sol strategic ballistic) MSB American made and sent to the base SSBNs.

France, meanwhile, SONY VGP-BPS11 battery has an intermediate option, for obvious reasons of economy, but also common sense. He decided to stay with two components: the MSB undoubtedly the backbone of our deterrent force and ASMP (air medium-range land). I take this opportunity to talk about the (strategic ballistic Sun Sun) recall SSB for almost 30 years, has maintained a continuous alarm and never in its mission with an exceptional availability and its supposed weakness was much more limited than some of his critics willing to listen. Therefore, in addition to the undeniable aspect of the survey provides financial pressure, SONY VGP-BPS13B/B battery studies have been conducted in recent years, an M45 based on where the Plateau d'Albion.

Our systems have been developed taking into account the ballistic missile defense as part of the ABM Treaty of 1972 was between the U.S. and the USSR signed, SONY VGP-BPS13/B battery used to date. Only the latter is implemented. So, we have the size to penetrate through appropriate measures against our ability to apply these defenses by integrating the effectiveness of all the sensors that are potentially dangerous in all phases of flight of a rocket aimed nuclear warheads were then. Therefore, the requirement for the entire spectrum of threats ranging from exploration satellites to intercept missiles at high altitudes and low, early-warning radar and radar transmission of the final battle for responsible leadership interceptor warheads. This titanic struggle was, of course, deserves generation command, control, communications, high-performance, Asus Tablet PC battery without which it is not realistic, a defense against ballistic missiles of that name.

If the fiscal framework in the growth phase of nuclear deterrence has been favorable, since the proportion of Title V of the nuclear power plant has increased to just over 33% in the 70's, of course, since then a steady decline in borrowing costs, has led to drop below 20%. It 'also interesting to note that, if good Asus A32-F3 battery intentions are the laws of military planning - also voted in a very different political sensibilities - but elected under the pressure of Bercy, these intentions have not materialized in the annual budget law and even less in its running.

Nuclear systems, Asus A42-A3 battery such as what happens is, the conventional long-term programs. Today the possibility of making assumptions about the future changes in the medium and long-term geostrategic is not always easy to understand. The collapse of the Warsaw Pact in this sense is an indication of the lack of transparency in the short term.

On average, it takes ten years in a complex weapon system, Asus A6 battery which remain in the service of developing 25-30 is therefore essential that these systems offer the flexibility and scalability to adapt to threats in the middle of the century followed a decision on the front of the admission .

This has been regularly used to produce nuclear energy. In general, holders of the weapons are slower than the previous development. This was the first Mirage IV A and IV-D arm sequence AN22 and ASMP, there are several generations of ballistic missiles in 1971,SONY VAIO VGN-AR830E battery after the MSB SSBS M1 to M20 and then the M4 particularly successful, where three generations of nuclear warheads to achieve more , the power and stealth, while the land of the missiles are not subject to major changes.

SSBNs and SLBMs in consideration of which is undoubtedly the most important component is discrete, it is interesting to note that only four countries in the world to develop the know-how and use our weapons system this complex of the United States, Russia, China and France. We can be proud of this small group of elites, especially since we had no experience in this field, as it came to the diversification of the implementation of the Mirage IV, opposing defenses with ways to enter the field of ballistics. And 'history, which explains the existence of the system that we control SSBS best available technology and would be able to use before the submarine component. In fact, our engineers Sherebiah (Society for the exploration and development of ballistic missiles, which are in the air during the merger of Northern and Southern Air Transport Aviation built in 1971) has managed to overcome all the problems in water output, better and faster than they thought. Thus the ground-ground HP Pavilion DV9500 battery component is installed on a provisional that would last almost 30 years!

The future of ballistic systems

The missile M4, the first to be able to bear a burden, now everything is up, where his military obligations in the final stages of development and maturation. He knew in his youth, the submarine is called the type of inheritance and armed with nuclear warheads rigid type 70 and 71, while maintaining the same unit of stages of development. However, given the development of the immune system, a new adaptation of the system component sub weapon was necessary. It is not always the same as the M4 M45 missile base, suitable for a submarine of the next generation of triumph,HP Mini 1000 battery and the bold, but with new faces like 75 stealth always accompanied by penetration aids that today for sure: "Today, their share of durability of Sea NG third SSBN, Le Vigilant, which is currently being tested before entry into active service, is to take an underwater heritage with the same type of rocket. Today This component represents about 90% of our global system deterrence.

We prepare the rest with a new generation of missiles, the requirements which have been made for political power: Increase first increase in mass and volume load, the range compared to the M45, and ultimately reduce the total cost of the program.

The first requirement is essential, since the cessation of nuclear testing in the Pacific and the simulation program will be created for the future development of nuclear weapons to impose these new features of robustness, security. That inevitably leads to a significant increase in the size and weight. The doubling of the volume available at the top solves the problem was intractable with the current generation of rockets.

The second relates to our strategy of deterrence in all directions. The distance between a dry ignition timing and possible targets located near Brest makes it clear that we have a system that would eventually be up to 11,000 km. Note that in this context, the four other major nuclear powers HP 395789-001 battery have no missiles or up to 14,000 km. No one can predict the intentions of a country outside the horizon of the M51, although now there are no ballistic weapons. It is worth remembering that all those who have done this kind of weapons are also in the business of space launch, and also talks about nuclear energy for civilian purposes. If necessary, there would be a small step for those who have decided that now is limited to the civilian sector!

The third condition is to perform a search for cost reduction that goes hand in hand with the continuing decline in defense spending and, in particular the section on nuclear power is necessary. This research since the program began, playing with different parameters of the rules of organizational development,HP 416996-131 battery technology or performance started a significantly lower cost than the M51 M4 program.

However, cost reduction is not imposed arbitrarily and unilaterally. Have the consequences of decisions on changes in the financing of a particular service that actually change the program flow, the elimination of activities or quizzes, tests and checks in a different way. This also applies to existing efforts is essential to prepare the preliminary studies to address the reality of the future, in order to develop a program already designed and installed to maintain the tracks. The probability that the stagnation of the day or the other increases with time and pay for the ignorance of the technical difficulties to achieve, is inevitable. As a general rule,HP Pavilion DV5 battery in the open in an early test flights. As an indication, I think it's important for the first launch of Ariane V could not remember a time when, encouraged by a successful series at home with Ariane IV, who felt the full control of access to space. How useless is removed. But what a dramatic impact on cost overruns, delays of commercial flights and brand throughout the European space community! The M51 program was officially launched in 1992, is running in the fourth SSBN in 2010, the Terrible. The top 75 will be composed initially of TN, HP 510 battery with a load equal to the current M45. It was not until 2015 to see the arrival of the new nuclear TNO heads (heads of the Ocean).

The second component

Finally, we discuss the second HP Pavilion DV5000 battery component of air. Should be seen as a complementary component of the MSB system came to fix known defects, but as an integral part of which has its own qualities. In addition to its ability to diversify the path complicate the problems for any defense is an important political capital "pose" in a crisis, and may be a requirement, the various measures of political progress and distribution, voluntary and open to show the views all agents of observation. Also, avoid all the "eggs in one basket."

Today, after the Mirage IV P provided by the service as a component of many years of faithful service, France elevation to the rank of major nuclear powers Dell Inspiron 1525 battery to set the retreat led by ASMP Mirage 2000N and Super Etendard is executed. A modernization program was initiated on the basis of a performance to life. CEA prepares new course called TNA tested. This missile will be used starting in 2008 and the first adaptation for the Mirage 2000N and Super Etendard and Rafale.

How to print over Internet without a driver?

The Internet has changed everything, the effects in traditional areas such as the pressure is felt. More free, more intelligent, more convenient and you can have with the new e-printerekkel AiO only a simple configuration we work. The Dell Latitude X300 Battery driver can be printed.

HP Officejet and Photosmart All-in-one models that have Internet capabilities. Independently connect, cable or Wi-Fi network to automatically connect to the servers HP ePrint to provide additional services to relieve your daily tasks. A major ePrint services and provides other print applications on the Sony VAIO VGN-TT25GN/R battery device.

Driver instead of an e-mail

HP technology every ePrint printer to an e-mail, which can easily be printed from the desktop or on the road layout. The Dell Inspiron 5160 printer is installed, the device shows their address, and so be able to turn the device on the HP ePrintCenter given by registered users. Can prevent the installation of a public and accessible language localization, and installation of Web applications using the printer to communicate with us in Hungary, while the basic configuration in an informed user can be done.

After Dell 4P887 Battery installation and registration is already news and documents to the printer, e-mail. If the message text will be printed and attached to the system to understand format documents (Office documents, PDF and JPG) are. Drivers ePrint special benefit or other software installed anywhere in the world and no document. The machine can print whatever you send by e-mail, if installed the most exotic, retro or just the development phase of Dell KY265 Battery product because there is no need for any driver or application target .

The printer owners to protect the privacy and security of all ePrint to protect e-mail address is unique and should only be for others, if given to the customer. Standard HP-spam filter on the client of the unauthorized use, in addition to e-mail address can be changed at any time. Increase security of Dell Inspiron 1721 Battery customers 'white list', you can create your e-mail, which allows the printer to receive print jobs to other addresses of mail servers will be deleted.

Printing without a computer easy and fun

Applications of the HP printing without a PC on the content of our Web site, print this purpose provided the least suitable for printers TouchSmart screen. Touch screen of the printer available for ePrintCenterben changed as needed in a number of Dell Inspiron 2650 Battery applications and settings from HP. The landscape in many sources of news and creative content (such as cutting, dyeing) and offers applications for service under the Google Docs application scanner also included: the scanner can easily upload documents on the web. is also online enterprise content scan, share, and direct access to Biztree forms of joint venture (such as invoices, receipts, legal agreements, checklists). Learn more: / go / ePrintCenter address in the applications of the HP printing system can be found.

Instead of wasting Tabbloid

It has long been the dream of the paperless office, but to serve a single cell basis, is to use and affordable solution for electronic documents can be read distributed, they were still in what we want to lead us to be printed As a result, to make better use of idle time to take trip. More selected printers, you can reduce material consumption, high capacity Dell KMP21 Battery option of duplex printing and associated costs.

Basically, you can save when well-chosen content appropriate and effective design, we can print. Big problem with printing web content, web content as the paper is not the browser print function so complex blocks of text printed optimized. For example, it is possible from the PC, the HP Smart Web Printing, which allows Internet Explorer to make the necessary blocks, the details of printing, you connect it, the paper is organized according to their needs. But PC Dell A3582339 Battery and a bit of time tinkering away, we need the corresponding results.

The HP Tabbloid HP elitebook 2530p Battery the most practical pieces from a wide range of printing applications. It provides that only the printer without PC quickly and fiddling to get information on the daily bread. The application is not related to each content provider can work with any RSS news source. To see the following pages we provide detailed help.

The ePrintCenterbe registered, check your print requests Tabbloidot that are perfect for blogs, news sites, to print the contents. Dell Inspiron 5100 Battery Tabbloid The default printer to the pallet factory is transferred, customization, click the Settings button, and create your own Tabbloid.


what is quantum computer of details

A technological revolution (I)

Since the invention of the first monolithic integrated circuit by Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments in 1958, the integration of electronic components will be further improved so that we now have hundreds of thousands of components running on the chip (chip) of only 1 cm 2 Technology is ULSI (Ultra Large Scale Integration), the VLSI dethroned today. By this standard Toshiba PA3107U-1BRS battery circuits, a fraction of a micron!

But at that scale the difficulty of the production is worthy of a mission impossible. Not only the quantum effects are visible, but run a lot of heat from components, which dissipate their lives. Finally, the solution of the integrated circuit has its Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS battery mechanical limits that can not be overcome.

To remove these difficulties, the 1982 Nobel Prize in Physics Richard Feynman invented the quantum computer, a computer SONY VGP-BPS9A/B would be able to take advantage of quantum properties, especially the superposition states.

Once again it is the Bell Laboratories and in particular Peter Shor that will be discussed, has invented an algorithm for factoring large numbers to convert them into products of simple factors. Example: the factorial of 5 = 120! = 5x4x3x2x1.

What is the relationship between separation and quantum computers? Cryptography! This algorithm is a quantum computer capable of encryption codes most complex in a few seconds to break!

Faced with this challenge, the majors have calculated the intelligence agencies or the military cut, hundreds of researchers around the world set itself the goal of building the first quantum computer in a few years. We went to the same date in 2008 or 2020. The competition is open to Toshiba PA3285U-3BRS battery researchers to see!

How does a quantum computer?

We know that uses a conventional computer with basic information, the bits that are bound to arise between two states can be: 0 or 1. This is the binary language.

0000, 0001, 0010, 0011, etc.: 4 bits with a conventional computer can handle a state between 24 or 16 different states. In our example, the advantage of quantum computers the ability to simultaneously process the 16 states.

We're not talking about bits, but "quantum" qubits for short artistic performance, as indicated above. Quantum computers with processors N qubits can then manage different information simultaneously 2N! Then calculated N times faster than a classical computer, as it is able to perform these calculations in parallel! The number of qubits increases exponentially, so that the power HP Pavilion DV5000 battery to work in parallel.

Today, we are far from addressing the situation that many states and most powerful computers work best with seven quantum qubits, the equivalent of a 7-bit processor, but massively parallel. The advantage is obviously a very important time saver. We will see that this HP Pavilion ZT3000 battery technology has other advantages. But it also has some drawbacks.

Manage decoherence

We know how it can be difficult to control behavior by the laws of quantum fuzzy ,logic eludes us is regulated. A qubit is a consistent state, meaning that it shows the two possible states at once: it is quantum entanglement or interlocking. But if the observable event with the environment, "DECOH" interacts and falls into one of two classical states.

This change in the quantum state is a major obstacle for the production of quantum computers, because this means that the potential of computers on the properties of parallelism in the quantum state of nesting depends.

Therefore still a fundamental question: Can we create a quantum computer HP Pavilion DV5 battery, if you observe, that it caused a qubit decoherence? As the physicists say, a solution is as difficult as cracking a secret code!

The result

But this is not the only problem for physicists. A quantum computer operates in a multi-dimensional mathematics, the results of a calculation in parallel in several parallel universes or spread to others. What is the practical consequence of this phenomenon?

Like a hologram, that means the solution will create a calculation on the whole, the interference of different results. In practice, this means that if you look at a particular result, which corresponds to an intermediate state, no interference will not occur for new, so stop,HP F4809A battery or rather the "crash" of quantum computing.

As the interference fringes in the young, the results of a quantum computer of constructive and destructive interference, which can interfere with the observed result. The results are specific quantum algorithm to calculate these differences may be the solution to a Toshiba Satellite A100 battery problem.

Do not lose the information

Today, one of the biggest problems of computing is the heat dissipation by the components. Today is the temperature of the majority of Intel, AMD or faster shamelessly over 80 ° C! Motorola To prevent them, must be cooled before heating (oil bath or fans) on his threat to "crash" the computer.Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery

As for computer rooms where the servers are provided, they must, if the ambient temperature exceeds 45 ° C, most computers can not be conditioned. The same is true for household appliances (refrigerator, etc.) is true.

The quantum computer is a similar problem, although its origin is different. Physicists believe that quantum computers are not really limits, or in computing speed and storage capacity and reliability,SONY VAIO VGN-AR830E battery which is a quantum leap in current technology.

However, it is a different problem: not to lose information during the calculation. Physicists believe that the work as quickly as possible, the operation will be performed by a reversible quantum computer: The entered data must be inferred from these results. A calculation using the irreversible loss of information that can be compared to the effect of heat dissipation, which is the SONY VAIO VGN-FW139E/H battery computer performance is limited.

Consider an example with a logic circuit. An AND gate has two inputs to one output, so that was a bit of information is lost in the summation. We must find a way to make reversible logic gates and discover a rule, a method, so that the SONY VAIO VGN-FW350DH battery information is limited by a carrier signal through the operation of the sampling (Shannon theorem) provides the same reversible.

In 1976, Charles H. Bennett of IBM showed that it is possible to use a general purpose computer to produce the famous Turing machine, the doors reversible. With the expression of a program in terms of operations on primitive reversible, he proved that the treatment is not significantly slower. This leads to the Toffoli gate, whose Toshiba Satellite A10 battery inputs are outputs fully deductible.

The Church-Turing thesis

Before going into the manufacture of a quantum computer, there are still many steps to solve theoretical, most approaches to the concept of cybernetics.

Among them, in 1982, Richard Feynman was a way to simulate a Turing machine or copy the behavior of a physical object to build. He confirmed the statements of Church-Turing thesis ". It is or can be programmed from a general purpose computer do all the computing tasks of any physical object can be done "

In 1984, Albert David discovered that in the description of a quantum automaton can be measured, the system is capable of tasks that classical computers HP 416996-131 battery could not simulate was performed. His machine can acquire subjective information from yourself it is impossible to measure the outside world was.

Finally, in 1989, David Deutsch of qubits made the theoretical discovery of the largest to date. He proved that the computing power of a machine finished with the laws of quantum information processing follows a single machine, universal quantum computer has been included. This computer was the equivalent of quantum Toffoli gates, some additional assistant operations are such that the linear superposition of states 0 and 1, this machine can once again play in a real quantum computer Dell F287H Battery.

English involves the discovery of a slight change in the Church-Turing thesis: "There are or may be made from a universal programmable quantum computer on all the computational tasks of a physical object."

The problem of consciousness

Sun quantum computer Dell Inspiron 1525 has interesting implications in the world of artificial intelligence. Since the advent of technology, some inventors wanted to build their robots with artificial intelligence, or they thought they were equipped with knowledge on the basis of philosophical principles. From humble beginnings of the "animal-machine" of Descartes made great progress and artificial intelligence robots today are able, without fear or unbalanced energy to spend in the short term. But this is not the cyborgs who remain in the realm of science fiction, despite the invasion of Bionic increasing our daily lives.

If we look at artificial creatures, such as NASA's Robonaut, P3, COG or material AIBO dog, it is sometimes difficult, different things, HP Pavilion DV2000 battery what is planned for this purchase, the reflex and consciousness ... be simulated. To see the reacting logically to act rashly or look in the mirror, each was asked whether the robot is not something any self-awareness. In each case, their creator wants to believe. Some believe, however, that the human mind is capable of action can not be achieved by a Turing machine. The debate is far from over.

In a quantum computer, the Dell Inspiron 5100 battery problem of consciousness is another dimension. If you push through the Church-Turing thesis, one must admit that any object, stone to the universe as a whole as a quantum computer and that each of identifiable physical processes may be the result of a calculation can be consulted.

From there, we can say that the human brain to a computer and the awareness that the calculation result. The Church-Turing thesis, then we can on a very bold idea, but logical, since all computers functionally equivalent and any computer HP Pavilion DV5-1000 can simulate another, it must be possible for conscious rational thought on a quantum computer to simulate. It remains to be demonstrated and this may be the story of a lifetime of research.

If you think the engineers at MIT, or qubit, it is possible to solve the problem of artificial intelligence, believes that some physicists like Roger Penrose of Oxford University, is the awareness that so complex that it requires Physical many exotic and unknown. Decided, we are still far from solution. Despite attempts to make some progress in the debate.


How much impact of Internet on our Brains

The latest book by Nicholas Carr, "The Shoals: what the Internet has done to our brains" is a testing of the SONY VGP-BPS9A/B Battery virtual but it is already much written in the press and THEREON Around the Internet and users are active. Just go to the world of September 4 e's blog Louis naug worry to an idea. The Internet is not without impact on pedagogy. In this new environment technology , The well-made head is only more vast palace of memory, her more than ever EST, through a management information tional, UN Instrument Analysis and Environment of the, over the Water, pricing HP Pavilion DV1000 battery decisions.

Many effects that the invention of the alphabet

It will have the impact that the Internet appears on the brains So many that the alphabet, mapping, printing e clock. So said Marshall McLuhan Already thirty years ago and the Development of HP Pavilion DV2000 battery Information Technology does not give it a tort. It est aussi noted that one of the Construction of Large memory the Deputy fonctionnement No external power is identical to the human nervous system. Of course, but the invention of the Library at Alexandria, the building with artificial SES classifications, outsourcing was already a memory for a shared knowledge Cremieux. It says the capacity of concentration and reflection would change the Internet: but any new HP Pavilion DV3000 battery Management Information Technology requires the adaptation of a Functioning of the patterns of information.

The most extensive attached libraries

Internet is a huge library BUT interconnected and a permanent transformation. She met the case in the capacity of the brain to effectively manage information in Fast. Experts Say About an IBM CE Quebec Every day the contents of it's eight major libraries that adds AU Heritage Knowledge.

Another form of reading

Even after N. Carr, a study shows that the brain areas activated is not equal in e-learning learning on concrete. It is quite possible, it is important that the same effects, SONY VAIO VGN-FW31M Battery which are also displayed. Finally, it appears that the opening of new neuronal connections of the old premium. This allows users not to read a book with passion. Enable new features on a more efficient and more comfortable certainly not obsolete the previous learning. Know how to drive a car does not prevent the encyclopedia of skills. But what we also know, and that does not appear cited in the book, that the method of accommodation of reading on SONY VAIO VGN-CR21/B Battery screen (divergent) is the reciprocal value of reading a printed text (convergent). The transition from one to another requires strenuous exercise.

A new head design well done

Internet and data outsourcing and divergent thinking suggests that, today more than access to good information and manage information, rather than a SONY VAIO VGN-SZ650N/C Battery memory. Internet moves from the cognitive abilities "by heart" the ability to analyze and criticize the kind useful and relevant information and what seems unnecessary. If this new technology allows computers to do a bit of brain and reduces the intellectual effort, he emphasized the need to learn this new phase of knowledge management. In this new technological context, the head is well done, not only an immense palace of memory is more than ever by an Sony VGP-BPS9A/B Battery information management, an environment analysis tools and water, decision making .

The first photon-electron interaction in solids

1.1 Presentation of the "name"

Instructive to recall that we will know the photon-electron interactions in solids are not epistemological. They are only a reusable memory.

Second, and more sense than it seems, must now assign "name" given under very nature, the phenomenon that we identify in this work. In the framework considered here is electromagnetic, it is the interaction of waves (s), electromagnetic (s) with electric charge carriers in their specific environments. The electrical HP Pavilion DV6-1199EG battery charge carriers are usually electrons, but they can also "holes" or ions to be. "The environment" to see that product as stress conditions by the matrix material (can occur when transport phenomena in general), and also as a constraint in a broad sense, because in addition to the presence of electric fields and / or static magnetic pulse or even with some Toshiba PA3285U-1BRS battery advantages.

A name is more than just a summary, and here there is evidence to define a ANTIPHOTOCONDUCTIVITÉ. It is also of two types. We'll see. This does not solve everything - or nothing - but this does not solve a particle is an electron interactions with matter wave. At least we know at some level of knowledge, what we mean (loosely). The "Declaration" is sometimes long after HP Pavilion DV6-1190EO battery ...

1.2 Type and quantum state of photoelectric phenomena in solids

Remember, before, in its principles, the photoelectric effect can occur in solids, showing that the documents are usually made of periodic space systems (crystals), where all the properties of the components by introducing the concept of substantially derived "particles can" (see below).

Of course, filmed in such complex systems as a wire in all directions, you lose a lot of properties, HP Pavilion DV6-1190EN battery including, for example, translation invariance in conjunction with the network. However, the basic concepts that are generalized by remarkable studies on the crystals, say so. Extensions are now on systems as complex as biological systems of units and bases can be used as a starting point for understanding how phonons, excitons are maintained ... - Quantum of elementary excitations - which, in essence,HP Pavilion DV6-1185EO battery are collective oscillations such as plasmons not the same size (see below).

This means that we now have on the quantum nature of phenomena (and their functions) opto-known and well used to concentrate the solids. They go about in isolation purely atomic and molecular.

First, recall that the quantum theory, which has to be used to correct the external photoelectric effect (see below) was the bill.

In a substance under the action of an electromagnetic wave, there are usually quantum transitions due to acts of interactions of electrons and quasiparticles. The structure of the HP Pavilion DV6-1180ES battery electronic states of the substance is also an important factor. It is necessary to ensure collective movements are possible, quantify the review of the quasi-particle radiation and send it to quantum optics, that is to say in the form of photons. And it is the photoelectric phenomenon if we are to adequately describe.

Respect of electronic states (which is "strictly" solid cores) in addition to electronic states in quantum "gangs" (where the electrons are shared by the solid) was added. And energy of the electron HP Pavilion DV6-1180EO battery and its wave vector and a possible degree of degeneracy for the electronic components in the conduction band: these states are especially made by a specific dispersion law.

On the other hand, play the tape band transitions, impurity-band and the free movement bandeétat an important role in solid bodies, and particularlyAsus Eee PC 1005 battery in the semiconductor industry (which concerns us here a little) and dielectric (insulation =) whose work is far from obvious in the interaction problems "UFO" that affect us.

Finally, we must ensure that in the general case, the photon-electron interaction in crystals (and less organized in solids), with the participation of quasiparticles. Phonons (quantum vibrations, if you will), for example, an original character, gives indirect transitions in solids. And there are a number of elementary HP Pavilion DV6-1180EJ battery acts of the photon-electron interaction, which are out of phase (in time) and spatially separated, which may be specific to these problems to an accumulation of base effects in space (important in nonlinear optics). Thus we see that the photon-electron interaction is much richer and more complex than in a meeting "pure" of atoms or molecules (eg the atmosphere).

Some memories are needed to be here to facilitate understanding of the principle of the quasiparticles in the following texts.

1.3 Reminder on the courts of quasiparticles

A crystal is often defined as a gas of quasiparticles. They are not natural for the real particles (electrons, atoms are ionized or not), from which the material to be confused. We can say that the quasi-particle model "particles" of the application of existing collective wave in solids. Their concept is to quantify the propagating waves is derived in a spatially periodic structure is possible or, HP Pavilion DV6-1180ED battery at worst, in a structure with a certain organization.

The existence of a macroscopic structure of the resultant quasi-particles. It is the purpose of this request, a quasi-particle of a crystal, HP Pavilion DV6-1170ES battery which alone justifies to extract the concept.The advantage of this descriptive concept of quasi-particles (or elementary excitation) is used in calculations to reduce the complex dynamics of a large set of real particles in strong interaction with a very simple dynamic: that of a gas of quasiparticles.

Some examples:

1.3.1 Quasi-particle collective origin

A network of thermal vibrations caused normal waves: their quantification HP Pavilion DV6-1170EO battery (put in the form of a canonical Hamiltonian) gives rise to phonons ("vibration quanta of energy," if you want)In an equipment ordered magnetic structure (ferromagnetic, for example), the "mass movement" can take the form of spin waves is known, are displayed in relation to changes in the orientations of magnetic moments (spins) - ion of the structure. Quantification of the notion of magnons.In the electron-hole plasma may result from collective motion to modify the plasma density and thus the concept of plasmon Asus EEE PC 904 battery (see "Background Optical"), etc.. ...

1.3.2 quasiparticles, each original

The absorption of photons by a dielectric (and semiconductors), the appearance of electron-hole pair. The elements of the pair were created to be independent and separated from the other to carry an electrical charge (HP Pavilion DV6-1170ED battery).If they are related (), for energy when the pair called exciton bound. This is essentially electrically neutral, but can be considered as an atomic energy storage, capable of transporting energy from one point to another of the crystal (wave nature). Show that the formation of the exciton absorption of light is explained in the dielectric, not the photoconductivity! Electron-hole recombination Dell Inspiron 1525 battery may be radiation (photon emission) and non-radiative (with the creation of phonons, etc. ....).

To close briefly, saying that all interactions between particles and quasiparticles is possible and lead to other quasiparticles:

ð electron-phonon polaron

Electron-electron plasmon ð

ð photon phonon polariton

etc. ....

1.4 The conductors and insulators: their pattern of bands

The two illustrations below standard (visual cue) diagram used to simple differences in principle between the conductors and insulators available. The coordinates are in the energy (E). Some important facts about the insulation below.

Divided by the dielectric (insulator), the electrons Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery in the occupied bands are certainly moving in the solid, but not enough to ensure electrical conductivity. We need a "time travel" in the scale of energy (quantum limit). Controlling the conduction of electrical charge carriers in a modified component of the velocity (and hence drift velocity), then energy. In the case of a fully occupied band (in the "rest" within its limits) is to increase energy efficiency is not possible, then the property of being "isolated". For cons If the width is not too large (), a quantum leap "through" the band is possible, is the isolation of a semiconductor, so the Toshiba Portege M800-101 battery phenomenon can be very complex, and we must omit here .

1.5 The three types of photoelectric phenomena in solids

We distinguish the external photoelectric effect (emission - plan - of electrons called photoelectrons, the crystals under the influence of the absorption of photons) and the internal photoelectric effect, which reduces the change into two sub-cases ( Because of the distribution of states within the crystal).

1.5.1 The external photoelectric effect

In metals, "normal" (or HP Pavilion ZD7000 battery driver), the external photoelectric effect on the absorption of photons by conduction electrons together.In insulators (and semiconductors) have the same effect, which is used by the electrons in the valence band, impurities and surface states. Below a threshold limit of pulse (depending on various parameters - present), also known as a red line, the energy is absorbed below the work function of the photoelectron, Toshiba Satellite A10 battery and there is no photoelectric effect.

The spectral characteristics of a surface emitting j (ratio of photoelectrons emitted number of photons absorbed) is also correlated with the reflection coefficient R. See below the curve of gold.

1.5.2 The photoelectric effect internal

This effect may occur in the dielectric (and semiconductors). The consequences are known: the appearance of excitons; Variations in resistivity (the beginning of the line of photo); the appearance of photoluminescence; ("Known special effects, solid state physics," see also "Magneto" below) the appearance of the Toshiba PA3107U-1BRS battery electromotive force. Quantum electronic transitions, which are numerous in this house. We can distinguish passages: the valence band to the conduction band; the valence band to impurity levels; Impurity levels in the conduction band; Valence band on the quantities of impurities in the valence band; and transitions between impurity levels. The quasi-particles involved in these transitions are mainly phonons. In the case of an isotropic case and charge carriers are electrons and holes can be written with an HP 506066-721 battery electrical conductivity:

EU: mobility of the electrons. up: that of the hole. and non-NP: its concentration.

The contribution of photons to the conductivity can introduce variability (standard notation for the character) in one or the other, the quantities u and n, because by using the total differential Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS battery of this expression discussed above. The result is a positive change in the conductivity of the experimental phenomena by physicists as well, which is why we speak of photoconductivity is found. Two cases may occur in a schematic way:

Variation (positive) of the conductivity by the concentration of charge carriers, and speaks of the photoconductivity of concentration:

After the absorption of photons, then there are changes in the concentrations of charge carriers that contribute to trafficking of electrical current. You can make transitions "intrinsic" transition between gangs or gang "extrinsic" impurity.

One of the few truly global HP Pavilion DV2000 battery studies related to UFOs, a negative result to a negative, combined and analyzed later in this sense, the "current theoretical ideas on the vehicle UFO-interference engine." The study is really about If more particularized, including drivers, class of transition metals, where bands or timing of energy with special characteristics. There were no tests,Toshiba Satellite A100 battery to our knowledge was a negative for drivers normal.

Mobility Management photos:

Photoconductivity (and you should always listen to "increase" in the conductivity) can also result from the electronic transition occurs in the conduction band. The Toshiba PA3166U-1BRS battery energies of photons required is small enough to act on the electrons, but the number of charge carriers remains unchanged, changing only their mobility. The following equation (where only the electron mobility varies) expresses the effect of photons on the conductivity (). In the context of UFOs, the idea - at least - are implicitly assumed to act on the mobility (), for braking radiation expressed in a sense, but not so good reports on the achievements of quantum physics of the solid. Mobility, particularly electronics, which reflects the image of the "rigidity" quasi-electron gas and may have a phenomenological relaxation, where to play "free rein" and the skin effect, a role UFO in the driver interaction (see Toshiba PA3285U-3BRS battery "skin effect" in this note).

We might now, the principles of the schematic and the characteristics of the transition bands of bands are directly or indirectly. We prefer to do these memories in the text of the plasmons.

1.6 A working definition: "The antiphotoconductivité"

This allows us to really solve the problem of the family name of the physical effect of the interaction of UFO discourse on the electrical conductivity and electromagnetic exclusively considered in the frame.

Given what we have to consider before, the definition is almost obvious, namely:


What we have met before the photoelectric effect, because it allows us to observe their "antiphénomènes"?

The external photoelectric effect:

Photoelectrons are drawn to the surface of a metal. It can be said, perhaps a little difficult in practice is limited, pulling the electrons of an operation wire, Toshiba Satellite U400-217 battery and constant after some time, could reduce its conductivity. Thus, the photoelectric effect is external "transformed" by a real antiphotoconductivité concentration (carriers).

The photoelectric effect internal

We have seen that there are two possible cases in terms of mobility and concentration. This requires that we have two conclusions: antiphotoconductivité antiphotoconductivité mobility and concentration.

As we have said before, this does not solve everything seems to give names, but nevertheless, it must do (or before. ..!). It could also be created between the names and "Magneto" ...., etc. Toshiba Satellite Pro U500-18V battery used to follow the same path. But concepts such as photoresist mobility and concentration are somewhat obscure. Also remember that we have the quality of the title of a scientific article (concise, keywords, summary ,...), we keep the previous two definitions is antiphotoconductivité, ask what more clear.

Finally, remember, in the memory pattern of light that Dell Inspiron 1300 battery have been made to this phenomenon of quantum transitions by the absorption of sound, it would be useful in the future in detail the possible processes to consider a return to the initial state of the cables after interaction "UFO". There may be indirect remake of passage (phosphorescence), the radiative and non radiative transitions, etc. .... not to mention the possible Toshiba Portege M800-101 battery physiological effects on witnesses in a row.