Nanotechnology:the manufacture product with a controlled geometrical size

Nanotechnology is the manufacture of a product Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery with a controlled geometrical size of at least one functional element has a particle size of less than 100 nanometers. This allows the effects of chemical, physical or biological are not critical to generate more than 100 nm.You can make a difference between nanoparticles smaller than 100 nm in one, two or three-dimensional nano structures built in a mold. Due to the large surface area relative mass of nano-sized materials have special energy properties, properties that can be used for a variety of effects not possible with conventional products.

The nanotechnology revolution has been made in the use and formulation of insoluble organic matter.

It can produce substances nanodispersii low solubility such as biocides, fluorescent substances, pharmaceuticals, dyes, perfumes, agricultural chemicals, sun protection creams, polymers, preservatives, food ingredients, substances, surfactants , pesticides, bleach, etc..

Nanodispersiile often higher performance solutions, emulsions and dispersions of classical particles (> 1 micron). In addition, bio nanodispersiile advantage of crucial importance for inorganic nanoparticles if they are persistent in the environment.

Nanotechnologies have the potential to significantly reduce the amount used in a variety of products to extend the life of the active ingredients to accelerate the discovery of new chemicals and the possibility of extending protected products imported by patents in the organic solvents.

2nd Nanotechnology and the effect of substances

Constantin Bolcu

Many biologically active substances have low solubility in water. For example, hydrophobic antibiotics, fungicides, insecticides, often a decisive factor in the materials of the activity. The formulations of these products, taking into account the hydrophobic and their work. The formation of these substances significantly altered nanodispersii the hp pavilion dv4 battery problem.

For example, the commercial activity of an antimicrobial agent (measured by minimum inhibitory concentration MIC), compared to a solution of water / ethanol and dissolved in water nanodispersion.

It is emphasized that the antimicrobial activity against gram-positive trade balance of about eight times as if he is able to nanodispersion water when in a solution of water / ethanol, the minimum inhibitory concentration, or about eight times lower In the first case is resolved against the second.Sony VGP-BPL13 Battery Manufacture of aqueous fluorescent hydrophobic substances is difficult, especially in a micelle. Nanodispersarea fluorescent agent can not only stable dispersions, but also improves the efficiency and maintain.

Many drugs can not show the true potential because of their low solubility. Since 1995, over 90% of approved drugs with low solubility. To overcome this problem calls for all types of methods that neutralize each with significant limitations.

Nanotechnology to solve these problems.

3rd Why people do not know much about nanotechnology products?

Cornelius Craciunescu

Nanotechnology has become a part of our life time. Although the products of nanotechnology will be used often by people, which is little known.

Thus, the cream, which we will include it from ultraviolet solar radiation in the nano-sized particles of titanium dioxide.Sunglasses have scratch-resistant plastic lenses by treatment with nanoparticles of titanium dioxide and zirconium dioxide.Carbon black is used for many years to produce tires. Soot particles with dimensions of the nano-network penetrates rubber macromolecule form a second network greatly reduces the rubber to Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery abrasion.

Vitamins and their precursors are dispersed in water are insoluble in water to form stable nano, increasing the human body. These vitamins are used in many soft drinks and juices, giving them additional benefits and attractive colors.

Currently, the market for nanotechnology products produced by over € and is expected to increase in 2015 to more than 1,000 billion euros.

4th Hybrid nano-structured particles

Dorin Jurca

Because of their many interesting properties can be polymer particles are used as forms of nanostructured materials for the synthesis, storage and transportation.

Polymer particles Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery can be used for the production of submicron-scale composite materials. This can be achieved by the introduction of various materials such as conjugated polymers, proteins, semiconductors, metals or metal oxides, bio-minerals, shaped porous nanoparticles in the microgel structure or the latex particles. In this way, the formation of colloids is expected, where many functional characteristics typical of polymer particles (specific defined size and morphology, large surface area, etc.). Equipped with functional properties of materials such as conductivity, magnetic resonance, catalytic activity, etc.. .. These HP Pavilion dv7 battery combinations can be combined open up new possibilities for the use of colloidal particles in the different technical systems.

The ability of aqueous microreactoare microgelurile for the synthesis and storage has been to use various nanostructured materials Kumacheva and his team recently demonstrated.Various functional materials can be incorporated into latex particles microgeluri or by different methods:microgelului housing during the synthesis. In this case, the Sony VAIO VGN-FZ Battery material with different properties (size, morphology, etc..) Polymer network is built mechanically closed.

The nanoparticles in or on latex particles swollen microgelului that are produced act as forms. In this case we can expect that the structure polymeric matrix, the properties of nanoparticles as fixing their distribution within latex formed microgelului or influence.Composites can be made using the method microgeluri are "breathing" of the network-absorbing nanoparticles microgelului for inflation or the Dell Latitude D630 Battery surface adsorbirea latex particle.

Examples of such materials are polymer particles with core-shell structure by emulsifier-free emulsion copolymerization of styrene with methacrylate acetoacetoxietil occurred. They have been used successfully in different inorganic materials deposited on their surface (metal-oxide nanoparticles, metal sulfides, oxides, magnetic). Another type of polymer of this type can be obtained by polymerization of styrene with PEG - macromonomer [19-22]. Dicetonică group polymer has the ability to create complex Acer aspire one Zg5 metals and hydrogen bonds with other inorganic materials. You can withdraw the amount of nanoparticles on the surface of the particle morphology of polymers or hybrid colloidal properties of the hybrids.

Composites of this type have found use in the preparation of humidity sensors, separation of organic molecules or anti-corrosive paint.

Hybrid particles with nanoparticles of noble metals are incorporated into microgelului network will be used as catalysts for chemical synthesis in aqueous treatment plants or water. The catalytic activity of metal nanoparticles is controlled by microgelului matrix. For example, blowing termoreversibilă microgelului control the distance between the nanoparticles in the network. In addition, the diffusion of reagents and their adsorption on the catalyst surface is better controlled.Microgel particles with magnetic metal oxides can be used as support for Sony VGP-BPS12 Battery enzymes in the processing plants textile bleaching and water.

May contain Microgelurile with bio-minerals such as hydroxyapatite or calcium carbonate are used in medicines.The combination of polymeric nanoparticles colloidal minerals is an interesting way to produce nano-structured hybrid particles with interesting properties.

5th Nanotechnologies for removing contaminants from wastewater

Constantin Bolcu

With the rapid growth of industrialization and water needs have increased in quality and quantity.

The presence of contaminants and natural organic matter (NOM) and small amounts of organic matter that accumulates in the body creates problems of water treatment.Technology coagulation / flocculation and chlorination is the technology used to remove impurities. But with this technology DELL Latitude E6410 Battery can not completely remove all contaminants. In addition, playing with the exposure to aluminum is suspected to play a role in triggering Alzheimer's disease.

Natural organic matter (NOM) reacts with most disinfectants in factories conventional waste water treatment (chlorine, ozone, bleach, etc.), leading to products such as acids haloacetici trihalomethanes (THMs) (AHA) , bromoform (CHBr3) dibromoquinonechlorimide acetic acid (dbaa), phenol and 2,4-dibromo (2,4-DBP), carcinogens.

Toshiba PA3399U-1BAS battery Membranes with micro / ultrafiltration for the treatment of water is a modern method of producing high quality drinking water. However, conventional membranes tend to lose material and through the pores of natural organic matter (NOM), organic substances and microorganisms accumulate in the body to create.

Nanotechnology has great potential in molecular separations, offering materials with controlled structure.

The nano-sized particles of titanium dioxide photocatalysis effectively, they are the attention of researchers that are removed by water treatment, their ability to humic acids in water. However, the use of titanium dioxide particles as nano-photocatalysis is difficult because of problems related to separation and recovery of the catalyst.

Researchers in Singapore have managed to maintain a robust membrane is titanium dioxide nanofibers have great potential in water treatment processes have. Membrane, which plays a dual role. It acts both as membrane filtration and photocatalysis. In the presence of UV light produces nanofibers with titanium dioxide, a strong oxidizing agent. The Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery material can be used in sunlight conditions.

The efficiency of membrane and humic organic substances in water to remove approximately 57-60% in the absence of UV light and 94-100% in the presence of UV light.

Efficient membrane filtration, with little cost by reducing the cost of producing drinking water.

Titanium dioxide nanofiber membrane is probably used to produce hydrogen to produce a clean energy source.

6th Nanotechnology in the coatings industry

Dorin Jurca

Nanotechnology is not new to the paint industry. 2000 years ago used to get Marcus Vitruvius Pollio, Roman architects produced soot synthetic dyes. Today, it is known that nanoparticles of soot exist.

Paintings in recent years have been presented in important products based on nanotechnology:

1 painting) easy to clean

Lotus flower is always clean and dry. When you look under the electron microscope, it appears that the lotus flower on its surface has a large number of very small bumps, the distance from 10 to 25 microns apart. These are projections of the wax crystals, covered repel water. The Dell Studio 1537 Battery combination of surface and hydrophobic surface microstructure prevents wetting by water. Water droplets fall from dust particles on the surface.

Dyes, the properties of the lotus flower and is easy to clean, have been successfully introduced in the market, especially for painting facades. They are characterized by the binder and inorganic pigments hydrophobic nano-scale.

2)Effect of paint

Dye effect that the appearance of pearls, or wings of a butterfly mimics requires the development of special pigments ferrous metal oxides. Acetic pigment changes color depending on the angle or light intensity on the basis of nanotechnology.

3) antibacterial paints

The silver paint embedded nano-size on the wall has a strong antibacterial effect. These colors are primarily die in hospitals, the room where food is processed, such as bakeries, butchers, etc. are used.

4) scratch resistant paint

At the nanoscale ceramic particles improves scratch resistance and mechanical shock are lakes.

5) photocatalytic paints

The sun's UV rays photocatalytic reactions in paints containing titanium dioxide. This allows the decomposition of organic particles of dust and pollutants. Colors were developed so that the walls of the visible light is sufficient to cause the deterioration of catalytic substances such as air fresheners to cigarette smoke or solvents.

6) color with UV protection

Wood is sensitive to UV light, it darkens over time. Wood stains are designed with transparent iron oxides with a particle size from 500 to 100 nm, which protects the wood against damage by light.

7) Colour waves shielded high-frequency electromagnetic

Many people are sensitive to electromagnetic pollution. Wall color with carbon particles and soot nano-sized acts as a shield against electromagnetic waves 99% at high frequency. It can also act as a shield against electromagnetic interference laboratories where measurements are taken and Asus eee pc 1005 battery data centers to act.

Paint has an important role in this increase. About 30% of the color that will be sold in 2015 are based on nanotechnology.

8 ) paintings with low emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs)

The limitation of Dell Latitude e6400 Battery emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC) paint is a requirement of the European Union, with profound implications for Industial.Water-based paints are generally binders such as polymers by emulsion polymerization. These inks require the formation of coalescing agent in the film. To remove the coalescing agents, there are two possibilities:

a) a glassy polymer with a glass transition temperature (Tg) less to make. These polymers have poor mechanical properties and durability.

b) To formulate polymers nanostructured core-shell type, is at the heart of the Tg of the copolymers at high and low Tg of the copolymer layer.Nanotechnology is the technology of the Dell Latitude D620 Battery future. It allows the introduction of new features in one product. The paint industry will lead to products with significantly improved properties.

For future work on several interesting projects related to nanotechnology:

The use of painted surfaces with products of nanotechnology for ASUS U50 Battery solar energy production.Color is autoregenreaza minor scratches repaired, without external intervention.Show color material fatigue piezoelectric in real time, such as bridges.Chameleon paint that changes color reversibly. Sun, fog, cars are most visible at the touch of a button.

7th Toxicology materials at the nanoscale

Constantin Bolcu

A serious problem is that not only know very little about the effects of nanoparticles on the human body.

They made some cosmetic tests have shown that nano-titanium dioxide penetrate through the skin. However, tests have not been completed. Some animal studies have shown that nanoparticles can cause lung damage if swallowed.

Development of nanoscale products and will soon launch a comprehensive study on the effects of these products on humans.



The digital power supply: a powerful concept when properly understood

In recent years, semiconductor suppliers and manufacturers of food vaunted concept of digital power Dell XPS M1530 battery. More and more digital marketing of this technology as a panacea for the increasing complexity of existing systems. Many users, however, have to wait and deal with the manufacturer of food suspected of being involved in the promotion of different architectures. To date, the lack of prospects for the industrial success with the help of numerical methods. This creates confusion in the minds of its designers. Moreover, in addition to the confusion, Dell 1735 battery manufacturers use different meanings behind the term "digital power." What does this mean? And what are the immediate benefits?

Not to be confused management and control of power

The distinction between the government and management is a key point in a discussion of Dell Studio 1737 battery digital power system. Ericsson uses the term "control" for internal monitoring of food, especially management, cycle by cycle, energy flow in this food-address. This includes the functions of servitude and feedback loops disadvantages. The plan will be implemented in real time (on a scale coincides with the frequency switching power supply). These functions are possible with analog or digital techniques. This choice is often transparent to the user. This means that the use of a diet with a digital control system can not change on his part.

In contrast, refers to the "current management" in / or communication and control of one or more external power supplies. This includes functions such as system configuration, power, control and supervision of individual power and communication errors are detected. The power management features are not executed in real time. They take place at a pace slower than the switching frequency of power supplies. These functions now tend to combine analog and digital techniques. Thus, the Dell Latitude D830 battery output voltage is often determined by resistors, while the sequencing of power lines usually requires special order for each plan. Such as Ericsson, is the digital management of power to use these functions to make digital technology. Also, instead of an organization with multiple links to and from the whole sequence of single power supply and troubleshooting, reducing a structure similar to a data bus for communication complexity of relations.

Power control: the techniques used

In Figure 1, left, provides an integrated circuit Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) in a primary traditional analog. A resistive voltage divider takes only a fraction of the power supply output. This Dell XPS M1530 battery voltage is then compared to a reference voltage amplifier with an error. The output of the latter is an analog signal whose amplitude can be used to correct the output voltage proportional. This error signal is fed back to the PWM, the output pulse has a width defined by said error signal is complete. This pulse then controls the direction of the power amplifier semiconductor (typically MOSFETs). Drivers are required to effectively transform the MOSFET, which have high gate capacitance. A SONY VGP-BPS2 resistor-capacitor network is generally offset to reach an adequate compromise between speed and stability of the intervention cycle.

The power supply consists of two sections, which are the input filters and output. Without using inductors, capacitors and resistors, have different functions. The filter protects against input voltage transients input voltage, stores a certain amount of Dell Latitude D630 battery energy to meet load variations and ensure compliance with specific questions about the voice re-injected. The output filter reduces the voltage ripple and noise output of the specific needs, "and saves energy that contribute to circuits called dynamic load. It is important to note that the filter input and output of the power components are basically the same, control is analog or digital.

The typical structure of a digital control of power in Figure 1, right. The network of measuring the output voltage is comparable to an analog system. An analog to digital converter (ADC), but replaces the error amplifier of the analog system, transforming the voltage of a binary socket. It's good to know, in addition to the dell inspiron 1300 battery output voltage, the value of other parameters, such as the analog output current and temperature in the diet. ADC can be purchased separately for each parameter. However, it is much more efficient, you can use a prefix multiplexer (MUX). To measure the switching between the analog inputs and drive one after another, for the ANC.

The sampling rate (MUX and ADC) is constant, the ANC offers an environment for each sequence of numbers separated by a fixed time interval. These values ​​are sent to a microcontroller that is targeted. An integrated program saves the algorithms that perform calculations on the output values ​​of the ADC. The results of these calculations are defined as the error signal, the pulse length for the control phase, the optimal values ​​for the delays between the outputs of the driver settings and the necessary compensation for the cycle. To compensate for the external components for the analog loop is no longer necessary. Set values ​​for variables such as dell inspiron 1564 battery output voltage, output current and temperature limits are stored in nonvolatile memory during manufacture or can be loaded into a data store at startup.

Compared with analog control, digital control is much more flexible in their ability to adapt to changing conditions and the load line. Analog approaches are generally configured with a set of "compromise" for a particular control. However, digital control systems offer the ability to control the settings under the terms of the converter to adapt. For example, in a regulation point of load (POL)-type synchronous buck a timeout ensures that the upper and lower MOSFET never simultaneously. Analog control with a fixed delay time to set the hour of death, in extreme operating conditions (worst case). But in most cases, the value of dead time is more than necessary, that the Toshiba PA3399U-1BRS battery efficiency of the converter. In contrast, a digital control loop to dynamically change the value of downtime, according to operating conditions and optimize the performance of the cluster controller.

In addition, the feedback loop compensation necessary result of a compromise between stability and dynamics of analog systems. On the contrary, it is possible with digital technology, or non-linear adaptive loop, varying the compensation rate in terms of the transaction. This means that the power pole or controller responds quickly when needed, and slower in other situations. This approach has other advantages: it requires a small number of decoupling capacitors for the safety data of output voltage, space saving and, finally, a digital control allows a batch operation - which is to "jump "to say the ignition cycle in low load - without the inconvenience of the generally poor Toshiba Satellite A100 battery performance of dynamic load.

Digital management of power

Digital management of power is the control and supervision of the Board of Directors of the digital power outside of their channels. An example of a sequence of commands or disable multiple streams, ensuring that each remains in its notebook line of tension. This type of control is of paramount importance when it comes to ensuring the proper functioning of components such as DSP and FPGA, various supplies needed for their heart, their low Toshiba Satellite 2600 power consumption and network I / O voltage levels more.

Current systems for digital management of power for energy supply in general, are on a circuit that is mounted to communicate with a control circuit unit via a digital communication bus. The power modules can be DC-DC regulators are insulated or isolated post. The central control circuit can take many forms: it can be given a circuit of Toshiba Satellite M40 battery power management to a microcontroller or a group of gates in an FPGA. This control is often called "master" or "host", while the modules are controlled classified as "slaves." In most cases, the action of the refugee camp for a single card is limited. In some large systems, the host controller communicates with the highest place in other parts of the system components or even remotely via extended communication networks installed. Figure 2 shows an example of a network on a single card.

A practical example

The complexity of the power management increases significantly when the number of HP F4809A battery voltage level increases on a map. The order of sequences, the rise time and the time to start or during normal operation and shutdown are controlled under the conditions of errors. All this is easily done with a digital management system without the need for analog components to control and delay. You might as well a sequence of events, such as when it comes, for example, to control the parameters of a module before the first corner on a second try.

The technical limits of tolerance of the voltage at the HP Pavilion DV5000 battery output voltage above or below the rated voltage, ensuring compliance with the specifications defined in any load condition. And "to be used to produce in order to test these limits in order to test the robustness of the whole. And "perhaps voltage fluctuations of ± 5% in different combinations. With the digital communication bus, is the work of less than 1 second without any additional hardware or additional connection. Figure 3 shows examples of sequencing and tolerances.

In fact, the digital management of power throughout the life cycle of a system is useful and nutrition. During construction of each module, an automatic test equipment to set up food and storage of data and serial numbers. During the optimization phase of the system, the digital interface allows designers to use food to measure temperature, voltage and current on a laptop in order to define the thresholds of protection circuits and optimize the sequencing power.

During assembly and testing of electronic boards and systems, test equipment capable of the management interface of digital output voltage tolerances of the test, monitor and adjust the tension is to use the measure efficiency and serial numbers and codes in the file. And if the designer is a host controller on board permanent locations, SONY VGP-BPS13A/B battery can be easily implemented to start and stop sequences without the need to add anything. It is easy to monitor the operating temperature to adjust the fan speed. The effectiveness is tested in real-time damage is reported before a fault. Routine management and fault detection can be developed taking into account the operating conditions.

Keep in mind that requires a digital setup does not necessarily reflect the presence of a host controller or a digital bus in the final, or even in the production cycle. If the specifications are known and expected to remain relatively fixed, the manufacturer of IBM ThinkPad Z60T power supplies are simply programmed during production without substantial changes. The client then uses the power of the same way as traditional analog devices.

Finally, the benefits of CNC convincing enough to make Ericsson the preferred approach in the design of a power supply and modules in particular. The company has implemented more modules to control the digital product lines. Some control of SONY VGP-BPL13 digital integrated circuits power supplies are also for system power management to be useful, most of the equipment needed to manage-and-drop "free" in the hands of the user.