How I broke the my laptop battery

It is known, a sudden discharge and not between the two. Does nothing to all of the batteries. She said,Everyone has an opinion on the subject and that's the problem.


I'll tell you how I literally destroyed my battery, you should avoid and what you need to do to keep fit.


It all started this summer. Sometimes I leave my laptop HP 484170-001 running for hours. Nothing harmful in itself. But with the processor thermal contact with the tribe, even if the battery deteriorates to about 40 ° F more heat, chemicals. Ideally, up to 20 ° C when used. There was talk of a performance loss of about 20% with prolonged use of about 40 ° C. This was my first mistake, but nothing serious, compared to what follows.


In early September, during the recovery phase, I have my laptop as usual. Often I do not use batteries, so I arrived at night and I invite you to the computer the next day. This is normal. But it is a big mistake. There is nothing worse than performing complete cycles of charge / discharge. This is a very important point, let me explain. A lithium-ion battery Sony VGP-BPS9 Battery has a limited number of cycles. By definition, a cycle of charge / discharge of 10% corresponds to 100%. On average, the battery will not lose its effectiveness for about 500 cycles. At 1500 cycles, the power is halved. It is quite shocking! As to avoid damaging the battery ,Dell Studio 1537 Battery? They have partial loads. In other words, you must load and unload, but not completely. The Li-ion batteries are not sensitive to the number of some of the mines. You can very well go up to 50%, then recharge to 100% and 25% to 80%. It is not bad and is the only way to do it.


Back in my story, I had my battery recharged. Of course, to describe the problem: I have my battery. 4 years in the PC, I had to do hundreds of cycles since the beginning, it was unforgivable. I assure you, that's not all.


Third fact. I say "fact" because it is not an error (but see the windows Parisians immediate concern). My laptop hp pavilion dv4 runs on Linux (specifically bang crunch). What is the problem tell me? I worked a few weeks in version 2.6.36-kernel, before moving to 2.6.39. At that time, but I found that I no connection with this update myself down. Involved a small hole in the core (CPU-related options are disabled). Later I learned that this message. Meanwhile, since independence has been removed, I had to ask for more. Everything has been reinforced, he was in an endless loop, the more I take my laptop was even more complete battery more I'll be fed. Fortunately, this problem is solved.


The adventure for you I 5-47 minutes backup time black screen, no WiFi and the processor is idle (no lie) is gone. Now here is a clear and useful things to do and not with the battery.


How do you keep your battery


Charge the battery Up to 10% then charged to 100%
Never completely empty battery


This is the main point. One thing fatal, unless load of 10%. Records show and defend the strict cross this threshold. Another important point that the concept of the cycle. The term "cycle" means "full charge / discharge." A cycle corresponds to a charge / discharge of 10% to 100%. In other words, the extremes. You only need to do a partial load. I explain below.


Charge-by-step


A lithium-ion-sensitive, the number of mines, but sometimes extremely sensitive to the number of cycles. This is not to give up give advice, but an order, you should not regularly fill and drain the battery. There is a full cycle once a month specified. As I said, charges that "breaks" instead of 40% to 90%, 70% to 100%, whatever you want when you want to avoid at all costs indicated extreme.


You are not using your laptop in the next two months


Beyond two months before storage. In this case, it is advisable to keep the Sony VGP-BPS13/Q Battery between 40% and 50% of the low cost. Nothing more and nothing less, there is a balance (chemical balance). You can place it in the refrigerator, but not placing in the freezer room. Do not freeze the theory of chemical elements at -30 ° C. In practice, no manual, the disclosure of your battery will be required to freezing temperatures. Ideally, as close as possible to keep at 0 ° C, space requirements, the less humid as possible and airy. Weather permitting, the oxidation of the cells will not be too large. Storage can be up to 10 years.


If your battery when the mains?


This issue has been hotly debated since time immemorial. It is difficult to give a general answer. The problem can occur in several ways. Your PC is a lot of heat? You have seen, the question of the independence of temperature seriously. When the temperature rises rapidly, and you know what you do, you can remove the Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery. You must think it's really clean and once a month. The question is, can not see if your battery when you are fed. It is not dangerous to life and change is not enough time. Of course, the micro-charge will be levied, but they are not critical. It is much more serious, you must remove the battery and leave it. If your computer is cool (or not), it is surely better to remove the battery.

 

 

What’s the details of the development history of computer

1 Purpose of Document


This document is a preliminary observation in "architecture and parallel processing machines, the" possibility Computer Telecom (IT) and Engineering Master of Communicating Systems (ISIC) of ENST Bretagne. Its purpose is to make the scene of the module through a historical perspective of scientific computing.


By providing a relatively large iconography that we chose to focus on the time of the pioneers of computer and their amazing machines, so the study period ended in the early 50's. At this point, in fact, most of the major concepts that have made the computer machine banal, if unusually complex are made today and asked to prove their relevance. Thus, the paths that have led to the emergence of these concepts, we focus here. We also work for these men and women who speak to the computer Battery For Sony VGP-BPS13/Q , like any other science, first and foremost a human adventure.


Which could at the time that 50 years later, the world would be profoundly strange to these machines is so small and formed are presented ... essential (!?)?.


The reader will find at the end of this document are several other items offered this time in the history of computing, but also the pursuit of adventure, including the last microprocesseur.Soulignons that many items listed in this document Minke are from the paper Jack "The historical evolution of the computer in the 1950s" [Minke-98].


Development of two computers, an increase of pre-war


Before reporting the facts to ponder a moment on the singular position of IT in the world of science through over Juris Hartmanis, director of IT at the National Science Foundation: "During a science is in its most general, to explain and understand, even predict the world in which we operate, the computer Sony VGP-BPS9/b Battery is dedicated to the automatic processing of information. Instead in order to understand the existing situation, to understand it, to avoid artifacts "Play" to do with it investigation. This research led to think of computers to analyze the newest theories and new conceptual tools and equipment to build and manage the potential complexity of the ever-expanding. "


2.1 The ehistoire pr


Long before the number of computers. A great invention, the number that is difficult to find the source.


We find traces of the Sumerians around 4000 BC. The number that is still many secrets of the ultimate intellectual property that lends itself to manipulation. Thus, the Babylonian abacus, invented a kind of abacus is, about 3000 BC This machine still in use in parts of Russia and China. The figures we are now known as Arabic numerals, it seems, never used by the Arabs. They come from India wrote a book on arithmetic in 1200 BC. This book was made in Arabic and in this way arrived in Europe, where he was eventually translated into Latin. In Europe the figures have taken the form they are today.


If the number is the raw material of  computer HP Pavilion dv7 battery science, is the basic tool in mathematical logic. We find the seeds first with Aristotle in 330 BC by his work with the title Organon. Euclid invented the same time, we, the first non-trivial algorithm. This was the calculation of the gcd of two integers. The concept of the algorithm 2 is recognized as essential in the formation and development of infomatique. The term comes from the translation algorithm (Algorismus) Latin name a Persian mathematician, Muhammad al-Khowarizmi, brought in a form to express what decimal arithmetic operations in the 9 pr siecle.


2.2 computer emic (17i and 19i na na case ECLEER)


These two centuries were particularly fruitful in inventions, whether the creation of robots or the development of mathematical logic. The combination of these two components, the subsequent emergence of the computer. Remember that the audience is not really a discipline as the mid-20th century with the advent of the first computer to be identified on electronic technology. Remember, at that time, what are the characteristics that hp pavilion dv4 battery have a machine for the title of the claim Jack Minke computer:


Its first manipulate information in discrete form (as opposed to analog counterpart).


Second, it must be real arithmetic and not easy to sustain the memory of the user (the rules that at least the chart).


Third, it must be able to handle relatively complex, without any user intervention.


Fourth, it must point to the data provided by the user and not to information that could be taken during construction.


Given the diversity of work that invented two centuries, we list the most important form chronologique.


2.2.1 remarkable works 17i th 1623 Wilhelm Schickard, if ECLEER (Württemberg), professor of astronomy, Hebrew and Development "to calculate the clock". It was a 6-digit machine is based on a transmission. The gearbox was used, as is done later in the odometer, a tower rouei rouei + 1 by a step forward, turn each step corresponding A1 = 10. The machine was this addition and subtraction of a bell shows a possible overflow. It will also help deal is installed on the multiplication and division, the user in Napier with the three best bands in France the machine, calculating machine of Blaise Pascal known, called the Pascaline.


Based on the principle of similar programs such as Schickard, but with a restraint system a little more difficult, it is often regarded as the first calculating machine


2.2.2 Wed major advanced 19i th at ECLEER


A period of 150 years without significant progress following the work of Leibniz. It is from 1800, that things can be reactivated as a technological point of view with the Jacquard machine, for example, with the theoretical work of Charles Babbage, in particular.


Joseph Marie Jacquard in 1801, inspired by the ideas of Basile Bouchon, Falcon, and Breton, has developed his craft. It controls the weave pattern of punched cards in a string. With this machine for the first time the term of the program rialise-mate as a sequence of simple commands on a remote computer is encrypted. However, it was held in 1725 which was to automate the use of a strip of perforated caps for the Dell Latitude E6400 Battery manufacture of ornaments.


1820-1840 During this period, Charles Babbage, English mathematician who contributed greatly to the development of information technology. Many of his works, there may be two main projects of the calculator. One of them was called "The Difference Engine", it is only partly built with the help of Joseph Clement 1832.Il was a machine that specializes in solving difference equations [memo-1]. It was recorded and completed in 80 years of archives by a team of the Science Museum in London. This implementation demonstrates the validity of the Babbage. He proposed later proposed a universal computing machine, it activates the automatic sequencing as "analytical engine".


Only part of the machine was finally built in 1871


In the same year Babbage died. In this project, Charles Babbage invented the concepts very innovative: He took the idea of ​​external program coded Jacquard punch cards consists of machine instructions. But he decided to diversify the interest in sequencing: repeat statement, jump back and continue in the program. He associated these possibilities, the concept of conditional branching, which later formed the basis of our modern computers.


Babbage produisitaussi many algorithms for solving various problems. This


The work was edited and the care of Ada King, Countess of Lovelace, published in


a book entitled "Outline of the analytical engine" [Katz 97].


Dedicated to the memory of the original contribution that the language was Ada, Countess. However, the most innovative ideas proposed by Babbage is forgotten and had the advantage of designing the computer that will be in the years 1930-1940 Luc rediscovered.


1854 George Boole publishes "An investigation of the laws of thought"


[Boole-54] describes a system for symbolic reasons and logic to formalize. Today it is commonly known as Boolean algebra. This work has had a significant influence on the development of modern computers, as they switch on an electronic-based (ie two-state). The Boolean algebra, a theoretical framework for understanding the behavior of such circuits. Boole's work has also Gerhard, published in Frege concluded


1879 foundation of a work in a complete form of propositional logic.


1890 The Department of Census of the United States will hold the machine by Herman Hollerith built for the data catalog. This machine is called "Electronic System Tab" sorted data previously entered on punched cards to programmable criteria.


It is right on the detection of the presence or absence of holes on the card. This system worked successfully and Hollerith founded his company in 1895 ", the Tabulating Machine Company," which was later in the year 1924, the name of IBM Corporation.


2.2.3 A look at what's new in T el ecom during this period


1838 Samuel Morse invented the telegraph. He was the first telegram from Washington to Baltimore in 1842 to send.


1867 Alexander Graham Bell invented the telephone.


1895 Marconi sends the first message of electromagnetic waves.


Av 2.3 the parents of today's computers (1900-1950)


The first three decades of the 20th century century, no significant progress in the modern computer Battery DELL Latitude E6410 , when it merged with the invention of the vacuum tube (vacuum tube, see Figure 6) by John A. Fleming in 1904. This technology (for details see [Barbour 00]) was first used in radio transmission systems, while the prototype computer that will arise in the 30 and 40, is still largely based on technology electro-mechanical.


The 30 years have seen significant advances in the theoretical concept of predictability, which marks the return key to British researchers Alan Turing.À the open question at the beginning of the century, David Hilbert: "There is a general method to access the decidability Usually, every mathematical problem? "Investigations of Alan Turing would have an abstract machine to reproduce the human mind can imagine. Starting from the premise that the human brain is about the internal states and the number of states, finally, he drew on the machine paper is built consists of an entrance to the processing unit of the drive unit in / out reading and writing symbols on a strip of infinite length. These symbols may correspond to data such as orders that are executed by the unit treatment. He established a formal mathematical skills and logical thinking of his machine and found that the answer to Hilbert's conjecture HP 484170-001 Battery was negative (for a detailed description of the problem and the Turing machine, see [Ch-99]).


Turing was an important contribution to the theoretical foundations of computer science, but he also thought a lot about the design of computers. So he proposed a set of principles, which are then very relevant in this area.


These include the idea of ​​taking instructions and data on the same physical media, the idea as a table with instructions that the Action Plan defines each match. We are here, not far from the concept of micro-programming, which will be formalized later by


Wilkes (discussed below). Turing also worked a lot on the cryptography and a valuable intelligence during the Second World War.


Besides these theoretical considerations, many projects have flourished in the mid-computer 30 in Germany, England and the United States. This type of project is then multiplied by the outbreak of war. In fact, when the military were convinced of the contribution of the computer, especially the calculation of ballistics for the encryption of the message or the development of nuclear weapons, these economists saw no commercial future of the computer Sony VGP-BPS13 Battery. This hypothesis has remained long enough after the end of the war. We will review major projects until the end 40.2.3.1 The work of Konrad Zuse in Germany


In 1934, Konrad Zuse plans [Rojas-97], a digital computer, the "Z1" to build. First idea: Give the decimal representation for a binary representation of the machine. This arrangement eliminates the need for mechanical gears for a delicate mechanical affordable. Second idea: To work effectively, a computer HP Pavilion DV6 battery must have a memory when the treatment is available quickly and as directly as possible. It ends in 1937 and reach an entirely mechanical memory with a capacity of 16 words of 24 bits. The following year he completed his Z1 machine holds an entirely mechanical. The instructions were recorded on a strip of paper.


Only in a second time, Zuse saw the advantage of being married to one technology to relay the pipes and valves are derived. However, it did not have the technical means to implement them.


He designed his machine Sony VGP-BPS13B/Q Battery and Z2, the conservation of mechanical memory, which became operational in 1939. It ultimately results in a fully automatic electromechanical relays, the first of its kind, with the end of 1941 Z3. This machine uses the memory for the 1400 relay, 600 600 for the arithmetic unit and also for their control. His latest creation, the Z4, survived the war and later became the basis for the introduction of scientific calculators by the expansion of the company's work computers Siemens.2.3.2, England, which took place in the 30 and 40 in England, closely associated with World War II. A major objective is to develop "break" messages encrypted by the Germans with their machine "Enigma" (see Figure 9) in the early '30s.


The first machine that was using decoding performed in 1938. It was called "bombs" It was purely mechanical.


A team of specialists in cryptology was formed in London in the late 30's, one of them was Alan Turing other. It made significant improvements to the machine. Built in 1943, a new machine, this time on the technology of vacuum tubes was carried out by the team. It was called "Colossus." She used no less than 1500 pipes and was clocked by a clock at 5 kHz. His call was not decipher the overall calculation. Even the very rustic and programming was done by the riders. This machine has been exposed contributed to intercept secret messages of the German army. Alan Turing played a significant role there, especially in the decryption algorithm. He has also published a groundbreaking study on a new machine, "Automatic Computing Engine (ACE)", a random access memory instead of conventional memory access sequence.


2.3.3 Improvements in the U.S.


The development of digital computers in the United States began in 1937. Several organizations have been in various projects, including the University of Iowa, Harvard University and Bell Telephone Laboratories involved. Later, the Moore School at the University of Pennsylvania, was involved in his hand.


E University of Iowa, 1937-1939 John Atanasoff developed a prototype computer based mainly on the technology of electron tubes. This was the "ABC" for "Atanasoff-Berry Computer (see Figure 11), it was calling its calculation published in its complete version in 1942 it was possible to pipe 300 and its properties were quite revolutionary for its time ..:


Binary arithmetic, in parallel with ALU -


Electron tubes;


- Coefficient of memory-based functions with automatic refresh;


- Main memory of the rotation of the drum;


- Input / output on punched cards.


However, these treatment options in quantitative terms has remained low, mainly due to equipment large enough. The "career" of the CBA was relatively short and therefore not pursued this John Atanasoff voie.Universit e Harvard Mark I Draft Howard Aiken had also determined the calculation. This project was taken Aiken some ideas proposed by Babbage (who was perhaps his only spiritual heritage with Zuse). He managed to get support from IBM for the project, which ends in 1944 as the IBM Automatic finishing second Sony VGP-BPS21 Battery controlled calculator. It should be calculated on the navigation charts. Well be made on the basis of an innovative technology for forwarding feature was to use the statements of three areas: the operation code, the source operand address and address for storing results. However, he had 6 seconds to perform a multiplication of 23 digits.


Aiken is in contrast to IBM after the project was funded by the Navy, which led to the Mark II prototype. For the record, it was reported that it was Grace Murray Hopper, the machine programmer, Mark-II, we first use of "bug" as the cause of the failure of a computer. But at the time it was not an artifact of the Bell Telephone Laboratories in the laboratory, Bell Telephone had managed to gather some great scientists such as Claude Shannon and George Stibitz. In part by theoretical work on the first and second relay designed with the phone in a binary adder used in Boolean algebra.


Continuing in this direction, Stibitz with colleagues and Williams Andrews in 1939, is working to develop a computer with complex numbers ", the complex number calculator" or "model of a Bell Relay Machine" This computer is mainly due to calculations in the submarine cable devoted involved. First in 1940, the remote connection over a telephone line between the computer Sony VGP-BPS18 at Dartmouth and his twin brother in New York. You can see something like the beginnings of the Internet Moore School of the University of Pennsylvania, there was the colossal project at the time of the digital computer: the ENIAC, for "electronic numerical integrator and objective 'The computer has been re-calculation of ballistics and the project was strongly supported by the U.S. military.


 

One researcher, John H. Mauchly and Presper Eckert great engineer, were the two main players in this project. This calculator, which extends from the development from 1942 to 1945 was perhaps a little unfair, as the beginning of the era of modern computing. Yes, it's not very advanced techniques in programming, as done by riders against each other, it had long been a while in a volume of 30 m, 3 m high and 1 m deep, and consumes 140 kilowatts Despite these impressive figures in memory of the machine are more than 20 words! Finally, the major problem unreliable by this monster, the huge amount of components used in its formation, resulting in an MTBF


4 pretty disastrous.


It is in this context that Goldstine, a mathematician of the team in Philadelphia, John von Neumann, himself a famous mathematician, professor at Princeton who was involved in research on "The Bomb" in Los Alamos. They discuss how the ENIAC Goldstine and von Neumann invited to visit Moore School. This visit will be the starting point for a fruitful collaboration between Eckert, Mauchly and Eckert and Mauchly von Neumann identified deficiencies in their systems: small vacuum tube memory of too many to reach an acceptable reliability and finally programming the machine to be cumbersome.


With the help of other comrades Burks and Goldstine, Eckert, Mauchly and von Neumann are brain storms commissioned a new prototype that will develop deficiencies corrected. This project is called EDVAC Electronic Discrete Variable Automatic Computer Sony VGP-BPS15 Battery (although in its commercial form of the machine as UNIVAC). It is probably the work, the key principles identified to date is still in the computer today. The most important is that the stored program (stored program) mixing instructions and data associated with the concept of the program counter. This process opens the way for the program autoséquencement (ie repeat sequence, conditional branching, ...). The problem was solved as he, along with that of the excessive number of tubes: Eckert proposes to make the mercury delay lines to achieve the main memory. Such a rate of 1.50 meters long has a period of 1 millisecond. In the loop back on itself and by touching the rotating flux, with a period of 1 microsecond, so it is possible to save kbit first Unfortunately, this success was undoubtedly the source of serious conflict between von Neumann and his colleagues Eckert and Mauchly. The starting point was a discrepancy on the disclosure of the processes developed with the EDVAC. Von Neumann wanted these discoveries to the attention of the scientific community and Mauchly qu'Eckert wanted to protect their invention in the patent specification. That von Neumann, "was the first" "Draft Report on the EDVAC design" published June 30, 1945. The historical consequences are not questionable, because even today, when you think about the origins of Sony VGP-BPS9 modern computing, it is known as "von Neumann machine." Eckert and Mauchly, who were the first craftsmen are finally let out of this mythology. Therefore, it is also important to rehabilitate their name, it would be foolish to try to take credit for inventing the computer to a person of their own. It is an undeniable contribution collective, which lasted more than a few thousand years, since the concept of number is certainly not the least important in this story.


2.3.4 The AD 1946-1950 are EDVAC


The summer of 46, a series of lectures at the School Moore of the University of Pennsylvania on the computer by the main actors have organized projects ENIAC / EDVAC.Ces meetings, a very significant influence on the future development of Informatics. Said Maurice Wilks is the design of the Cambridge University EDSAC (Electronic Delayed Storage Automatic Computer) on a pedestal near the EDVAC. It is generally accepted that the EDSAC, the first programmable computer Sony VGP-BPL14 Battery was fully functional. Programme "registered" means that the execution of a program carried out in two steps: first loaded into memory and then himself. That offers the flexibility of sequencing instructions as opposed to the execution of the flight intructions, if there is no pre-registration. This computer, operating at 49, additional innovations such as the use of subroutines. The libraries of scientific computing begins to form (detailed properties of the EDSAC, see [EDSAC-99]).


Published in 1951, Maurice Wilks yet another innovation, a significant impact on computer architecture: the firmware. Under this approach, the control is part of a computer Sony VGP-BPL9 machine PROGRAMMBLE complete, which will pave the way for the machine instruction sets are much more powerful than what we previously with wired controllers.


Besides the development of the EDSAC, another project called the Manchester Mark I, by FW Williams and Tom Kilburn is conducted under the guidance of Max Newman at the University of Manchester. This is a programmable computer, but in a smaller size. From the perspective of memory, giving the designer of the delay line of mercury used in the EDSAC and has developed two new devices that will constitute a significant advance:


- Cathode ray tube memory developed by William FW itself 47, used


the main memory of Mark-I. ;


- The magnetic drum, which carries a storage capacity of sequential access is much higher


Time units on the brand I secondary storage (for more information on the device you will find in this memory organization was itself an innovation and paved the way for the unit to become the standard used today: Central memory Random Sony VGP-BPL8 Battery Access Memory and a secondary magnetic disk. However, the first technology that will provide a purely random access ferrite matrix, developed by Forrester in 1951. It was quickly adopted to achieve the main memory of computers, high " in semiconductors of 70 to be replaced.


Recall that the first transistor was invented at Bell Labs in 1947 (see Figure 23) by Shockley, Bardeen and Brattan.


2.4 Some words about the work on programming


The time the Caculation the principle of the recorded program (ie, the EDSAC), use the intructions are systematically coded as binary words. Directly produce a program in this form will quickly become boring and therefore conducive to a lot of mistakes. For this reason, understandable language similar to assembler programmers (or mnemonic language), that explicitly, Sony VAIO VGN-FZ Battery which will be supported on the machine instructions and addressing modes to be invented. Wilkes is yet to see the interest of creating a program that can automatically ensure the implementation of the mnemonic code into machine code, a program that was later called the assembler.


Later, Elizabeth Snyder Holberton, part of the programming team, was the pioneer of the ENIAC, a code generator to develop the machine sorted UNIVAC I program. In 1952, Grace Murray Hopper, the first high-level language (ie, abstraction of the machine) with the appropriate compiler. This language was as A-0. It generates a code of poor quality is performed significantly worse than programming directly in assembler. It did not happen to change his mind because the critics, few people at the time thought it would ever be possible to generate efficient code from a high-level language.


It was John Backus, a researcher at IBM, that this challenge in a well-defined Pink, computer science. He created the Fortran (Formula Translator) in 1957. The effectiveness of the product code was very acceptable in comparison to hand coding. Although under certain


Criticism, when we talk later began structured programming was a success that Fortran has never failed so far and continues to change regularly (Fortran 90, HPF,. ..).


The example of Fortran was a few years later by a U.S. government initiative that "committer on Data Systems and Languages", in 1960, the development of COBOL (Common Business Oriented Language), whose goal was the business management led follow established. Even today, many accounting applications are in COBOL on old layers that may not be documented in writing built .

 

New ways of electrolytes in lithium batteries



Two new generations of lithium 1990-1995, mainly on the strength of the Japanese manufacturer of portable devices (cameras, computers, mobile phones ... emerging markets), two new fields of electricity generated by storage over conventional technologies. The development of nickel-metal hydride and lithium first, which completely surprised by the initial distribution, and more traditional producers (Box E, accumulators and SONY Batteries VGP-BPL9: continuous performance improvement) have changed.


A deformed part of Japanese industry, the development of these technologies, even in the second half of the nineties and a steady increase in the mobile market (+ 1% per month in 2000 the market penetration of 70% in Europe in 2003 supported by a few percentage points in 1996), a strong candidate for a high energy density in a small encombrement.C is that the market for lithium batteries more than € 4.5 billion in 2000 and the Japanese manufacturers (Sony , Sanyo, Matsushita) and Korean (LG, Samsung), the majority (70%) of a market is now dominated by about 95% (Japan, Korea and China) at the expense of the Europeans but also Americans, almost absent from the market represented by the power supply for portable devices hp pavilion dv4.


A number of European initiatives are emerging, but for the development of certain sectors of lithium batteries, there are obvious advantages on the road lithium-ion offers developed in Japan and Asia in general. Work at CEA / Grenoble, in collaboration with manufacturers such as SAFT, Batscap (Bollore Group), Tadiran and academics, including ICMCB and IMN LEPM (1). Meanwhile, CEA, lie down with an industrial microwave ion sources based on processes of microelectronics, including the first generation launched in 2003.


The current lithium-ion batteries HP 484170-001 , based on a technology cobalt / graphite ones are by far the best performance in terms of energy density and volume as well as 150 to 170Wh/kg 400Wh / L (Table). Operating principle of a lithium battery in use, thus discharging the battery, lithium released by the negative electrode (<H> host intercalation material) in the form of Li + ions by the electrolyte ionic conductor and between the crystal lattice to migrate to the positive electrode active material (from the insertion of lithium metal oxide <Mli>). The passage of each ion Li internal circuitry of the battery is exactly compensated by the passage of an electron in the external circuit, generating an electric current. The energy of these reactions is proportional to the potential difference between the two electrodes and the amount of lithium insertion in the use of materials.


It is also inversely proportional to the total mass of the system. Now lithium is the lightest (molar atomic mass 6.94 g) and the reduction of metals: electrochemical systems, which reach at voltages of 4 V, 1.5 V compared to other systems. So, not to meet the highest energy density mass of lithium-ion and volume (typically over 160 Wh / kg and 400 Wh / l), with an average of more than 50% for provision of those of conventional Batteries SONY VGP-BPS13/Q.


The operating principle of a lithium battery is the same as the negative electrode of lithium metal or carbon-based applications. In the latter case, the process technology called lithium ion, since lithium is never metallic form in memory, and "yo-yo" between the two compounds, including the insertion of lithium in the electrodes positive and negative of each loading and unloading of the battery.


However, the specifications for the storage of energy in a sustainable manner, to a very low cost for the battery, up to 100-200 € / kWh, much lower values ​​at current prices, Li-ion: at least € 500 / kWh battery as chinois.Le CEA / Grenoble has filed several patents on the development of new low-cost materials such as phosphate, iron and titanium oxide.


It may be the next generation lithium-ion low-cost high intrinsic safety, high energy, high capacity and other high performance.


The high channel capacity for photovoltaic applications, lead-acid batteries in a large majority of systems due to their low cost (<150 € / kWh) is used by more than other technologies (NiCd, NiMH and Li-Ion) . Their electrical performance, but that they associated with the life of solar cells (> 10 years).


The Laboratory of the thumb of Energy (LSEM) CEA indicates that the cost of new technologies in the short-term goal of less than 300 € / kWh using four advantages over the LiFePO4 / graphite technology advantage: The life time, low self-discharge, the system 5-6 times more light and lack of maintenance.


The cost of equipment of a Li-Ion Battery SONY VGN-FZ180E(about 80% of the cost of the battery) is 25% of the cost of cobalt and 25% allocated to security agencies all the more necessary because of the high reactivity of this compound at high temperatures. There is a cost of more than 30% in the next generation of batteries by the use of iron-phosphate can be achieved with the target cost (3.1 cobalt), above, on the other hand, the removal safety devices chemical and electrochemical stability.


The blocking of this family of compounds is the low electrical conductivity, making it difficult to use in batteries (see Box 3). By optimizing the composition and procedure Production, CEA / Grenoble, the performance of iron phosphate to stabilize at room temperature (165 mAh / g at 23 ° C).


In this area, "Battery SONY VGP-BPL13 with a high capacity, low cost," a step forward is the production of high-voltage spinel materials LiNi0, 5O4 is 5Mn1 been stabilized performance over 50 cycles, and capable of overcoming these materials require 240Wh / kg. Maize research and development of batteries on the market to keep up to 500 revolutions per minute can be integrated.


For use in hi hybrid power are the limits of the toshiba satellite a100 battery is very strong in terms of cost and performance. Currently the development of the field of super-capacity systems, location, a large amount of energy for a relatively short time, Li-Ion standard. At present none of these technologies do not fully meet these requirements, primarily because of their technology coût.La join the CEA / Grenoble made several changes: Introduction iron phosphate for the positive electrode, reducing costs and replace the safety, the introduction of titanium-graphite oxide electrode negative to the battery fully charged in minutes, and the development of bipolar technology to reduce drastically connectivity, improved performance braking high battery pa3818u-1brs voltage.


The latest results show the stability of cells subjected to 2,000 cycles of rapid charge (load capacity of 70% in 3 minutes) - faster download (2 minutes). The development of the battery is also a model of their operation is based. In this context, the calculation software (code) is now modal and developed for the behavior of the new generation of cell parameters such as the thickness of the electrodes or the electrolyte salt concentration predict.


Prototypes of Capacity from 1 to 5 Ah are made for each cluster. Target applications (medical, portable tools, smart cards, military, aerospace, ...) go well beyond the photovoltaic and hybrid.


A first battery to the load torque LiFePO4/Li4Ti5O12 tolerance of 60% Capacity in 7 minutes, by the CEA, which has made a new polymer electrolyte performance benefits and energy savings of 30% compared to current commercial separators. All of these developments on the technology of Li-ion batteries allowed the filing of ten patents in one year.


With the new Toshiba PA3465U-1BRS battery electrolytes, polymers, gels carbonate liquid electrolyte (propylene carbonate or ethylene, dimethyl carbonate) are lithium ion conductor cylindrical and prismatic (flat), currently on the market for electronic portable.S or if it is a good conductor, the order of 1 ms / cm at room temperature, the temperature operating permit and between - 20 and 60 ° C, but they do not, security and performance. In return, the dry polymers such as polyethylene, especially for transportation applications (electric vehicle) designed, but safer because of the lack of fluid, the conductivity is too low for use at room temperature.


In recent years ,his work has focused on polymer films and gels to concentrate better security for the energy density of greater volumes, and greater flexibility in terms of lower production costs for development. These achievements are due to the use of polymer-gel consistency between the electrode film and the positive ,and negative metal container to take to replace a traditional rigid and flexible packaging ensures hp dv7 battery together.


These electrolytes membranes consist of a polymer matrix that provides mechanical stability and in which the liquid electrolyte is trapped. The fraction of the weight of the liquid between 50 and 70% at an ionic conductivity similar to liquid, while maintaining good mechanical stability for a few tens of microns of film to receive (1 micron = 10-6 m). The matrix is ​​soluble or compatible with conventional methods to ensure the implementation of the polymers, such as molding or extrusion.


The CEA / Grenoble involved matrices of the type of porous PVDF-HFP copolymer (polyvinylidene fluoride-hexafluoropropylene), which tested the performance of thin, flexible hp mini 1000 batteries . Developments will focus specifically on the ability to improve performance compared to systems with liquid electrolyte.


The molten salt, many applications it is necessary to extend the temperature range of low battery. This reduces the internal resistance and thus increase the ionic conductivity of the electrolyte. In addition to the electrolyte is a lithium salt in a polar organic solvent (2) of carbonates dissolved as described above, the


The CEA is only in the ionic liquids are composed of anions and ionic liquids are concerned, the best known example of cations.Les fondus.Par salts, sodium chloride, NaCl melts at 800 ° C and the resulting liquid contains only Na + and Cl-ions. A key feature in terms of their structure, ionic conductivity high.


Their main limitation is its melting temperature is generally high. Molten salt at low temperatures are used for specific applications: the case of NaAlCl4 sodium chloride, which melts at 153 ° C (Na +, AlCl4) and a conductivity of 0.5 W / cm at 160 ° C organic salts can decrease the melting point of these mixtures at temperatures down to - 90 ° C. In light Dell Latitude E6410 lithium batteries to work at low temperatures, these ionic liquids has recently developed rapidly.


New electrolytes have been proposed, particularly for the cation EMI + (ethyl-methyl imidazolium) or BMI + (butyl-methyl imidazolium) and BF4-anions or Nf6. Their main advantages of high chemical stability, especially in relation to air and water, a stable temperature between - 90 and 400 ° C according to the electrolyte, an electrochemical window (3) the order of 5 V, a power that can be gelled polymer (PVDF, for example) and a low vapor pressure. Conductivity at 25 mS / cm at room temperature.


To continue be used in SONY VGP-BPL8 lithium batteries , a lithium salt, which is very soluble in the electrolyte to find. This problem seems to be an American company (Covalent Associates) has announced the availability of overcoming these electrolytes with high conductivity. The other obstacle of the development costs of these new salts eleve.Aussi methods for the synthesis in aqueous medium, less expensive, is still under investigation.


How does a photovoltaic cell?


The photovoltaic effect can be used in solar cells to convert light energy from the sun directly into electrical energy through the production and transport in a semiconductor material of the positive and negative electrical charges of the light. This material consists of two parts, one with an excess of electrons and a lack of electrons, called p-doped or drugged


If the first people came in contact with the second, the excess electrons in the material in the material from the first n ndevient field with a positive charge, doped, and p-doped region initially negatively charged. This creates an electric field on the electrons in each region has holes tends field by pressing a node (called the p-n) is formed. The addition of metal contacts on the regions, a diode is obtained. If the junction is illuminated, photons with an Dell Battery Inspiron E1705 energy equal to or greater than the bandgap energy to the atoms of each set of the electron valence band to the conduction band leaving a hole and unable to move, resulting in electron-hole pair. When a load is placed on the entrance to the cell in the N electrons in the region, the holes in the p-fields on the external connector, creating a potential difference: an electric current.


The effect is the semiconducting properties of the material and doping to improve the conductivity is based. The silicon used today in most cells was selected for the presence of four valence electrons in the outer layer (column IV of the periodic table). In the solid silicon, each atom - said tetravalent - is linked to four neighbors, and all the electrons in the outer envelope of the relevant securities. If a silicon atom by atom from column V (P for example), one of the five valence electrons is not replaced involved in bonds issued by the thermal motion, will soon move into the conduction band and to move freely in the crystal, a hole from the dopant atom.


This is an electron, and said n-type doped semiconductor, if instead of losing, atom by atom on a silicon column III (boron, for example), three valence electrons to replace, make all connections, and to an electron is quickly coming to this gap and to fill the vacancy to be filled agitation thermal. The result is a hole in the valence and the conduction electrons contribute to the atoms of a semiconductor p-type doped and boron and phosphorus are words like and doping of silicon. The solar dell inspiron 1545 akku cells are assembled in modules.


The operating principle of an organic solar cell


After the absorption of photons by the polymer, bound electron-hole pairs (excitons) are generated and separated. Given the limitations of organic materials (exciton lifetime, mobility, low cost), only a small fraction of electron-hole pairs generated by photons effectively contribute to the photocurrent. One of the key ideas is the distribution volume of photo-generation sites to reach the dissociation of excitons to improve. This approach is based on the large area of ​​the intersection with the creation of a network of such interpenetrating donor / acceptor (D / A) transport of holes (P +) at the anode (ITO) and electron transport (base-) at the cathode metal (aluminum, Al, for example).


If the quantum yield of photo-induced charging systems polymer separation with a semiconductor (eg, PPV or polythiophene) with a fullerene derivative (PCBM) is so close to unity, the challenge now is to phenomena of recombination and trapping that limit to reduce the cost of transport and collection at the electrodes to increase the overall efficiency of compatible battery for acer aspire 5735z devices that are currently low (less than 5%).


The growth of the industry is also heavily dependent on mastery and understanding of the mechanisms of cellular aging, but also control of thin film technologies for personal protection against oxygen and water vapor from the air.

 

 
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